Midterm #1 (Chapter 2)

What is neuroscience?
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Terms in this set (65)
What is action potential?The charge the neuron gets when a messaged is fired and received.How is threshold and action potential related?Both play a role in neurotransmission.What is a neurotransmitter?A chemical that sends signals from one neuron to another neuron over the synapse.What is a synapse?Gap between terminal button and neuron.What is a vesicle?Where neurotransmitters are stored in the terminal buttons..What is a receptor?Binds to another receptor on the next neuron.What is a reuptake?Reabsorb neurotransmitters into vesicle.Describe the function of acetylcholine.Muscle movement, attention, arousal, and memory.Describe the function of dopamine.Controls brain's reward and pleasure centers, and helps regulate emotions.Describe the function of norepinephrine.Helps to control alertness and the reaction of "fight-or-flight."Describe the function of serotonin.Helps regulate mood.What is an agonist? Give an example.Excites or promotes neurotransmission. Example: EndorphinsWhat is an antagonist? Give an example.Inhibits or blocks neurotransmission. Example: BotoxWhat is the nervous system?A collection of neurons throughout the body that communicate.Where do reflexes occur in the nervous system?The spinal cord.Describe the central nervous system.Consists of the brain and the spinal cord.Describe the peripheral nervous system.All other nerves branching throughout the body.Describe the somatic nervous system.Voluntary movement and sensory information.Describe the autonomic nervous system.Automatic bodily functioning such as digestion and pumping blood.Describe the sympathetic nervous system.Initiates "fight-or-flight" response to threats.Describe the parasympathetic nervous system.Calms body down after threat subsides.What is endocrine?Chemical communication network, slower than the nervous system.What is a hormone?Chemicals in bloodstream that regulate bodily functioning and growth.What are the primary functions of the pituitary gland?"Master" endocrine gland that regulates all other endocrine glands and regulates growth as well.Who was Phineas Gage? Why was he interesting to psychologists?Brain damage patient that changed the way he thought and affected his personality after a pole went through his frontal lobe.What is an electroencephalograph (EEG)?Records brain's electrical activity and measures function.What is computer-assisted tomography (CT scan)?Takes images of brain structure using X-rays.What is positron emission tomography (PET scan)?Radioactive glucose is injected into the brain and tracked for most activity.What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)?Uses two magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain and other soft tissue.What is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)?Detects blood flow in brain and how it functions. Increased blood flow means more work.What is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?Magnetic pulses directed at brain regions to disrupt neural functioning.What is the function of the brainstem and what does it consist of?Set of neural structures at the base of the brain. Contains: Medulla, pons, and cerebral cortexWhat is the function of the medulla?In charge of heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing.What is the function of the pons?In charge of sleep, coordinate motor movements, posture, and facial muscles. Connects brainstem and cerebellum.What is the function of reticular formation?Bundle of nerves running through brainstem in charge of alertness.What is the function of the thalamus?A sensory relay station, except for smell.What is the function of the cerebellum?The "little brain" which coordinates movement, posture, balance, and timing. As well as works with time and paying attention.What is the function of the limbic system and what does it consist of?Structures that are responsible for emotion, motivation, and memory ("emotional brain"). Contains: Amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampusWhat is the function of the amygdala?In charge of emotions, emotional behavior, and motivation. Especially associated with anger and fear.What is the function of the hypothalamus?Maintains homeostasis or balance in the body. Regulates things such as hunger, body temperature, sleep, and controls pituitary glands.What is the function of the hippocampus?Triggers processes that store and retrieve memories throughout the brain.What is the cases study about H.M. and amnesia?H.M. go his hippocampus removed to control epileptic seizures. In response, got anterograde, which made it so he could not form new memories.What is the function of the cerebral cortex and what does it consist of?Wrinkled surface of the brain in charge of higher level mental processes. Contains: Left hemisphere, right hemisphere, cerebral cortex, corpus callosum, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe.What is the function of the left hemisphere?In charge of analytical and verbal information like language and number skills. Controls opposite side of bodyWhat is the function of the right hemisphere?In charge of perceptual information like art and creativity. Controls opposite side of body.What is the function of the cerebral cortex?In charge of high level mental processes.What is the function of the corpus callosum?Allows the two hemispheres to communicate with each other.What is the function of the frontal lobe?In charge of planning, emotion regulation, personality, sophisticated motor control, and producing language. Motor cortex within controls fine movements and is organized by body part.What is the function of the parietal lobe?In charge of sense of touch organized by body part. Integrates spatiality, works with math and numbers. Contains sensory cortex in charge of touch.What is the function of the temporal lobe?In charge of hearing and understanding language.What is the function of the occipital lobe?In charge of vision and has separate areas for shape, color, and motion.What is split-brain surgery? Why would we do it to a person?Severs the corpus callosum connecting both hemispheres in brain to help treat epilepsy.How does split brain surgery affect how a person perceives the world?Information can no longer communicate between both hemispheres.What is plasticity? Why is it important to brain development?The brain's ability to modify itself and recover from brain damage. Helps development as you grow and makes it easier to recover from potential damage.What are neuroprosthetics?Neural device that replaces function of body part.