Psychologists and Their Contributions
Terms in this set (70)
Maintained that personality and ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance(human traits are inherited)
"Father of Psychology", created first psych lab and introspection
Created first psych textbook called "Principles of Psychology"; developed functionalism
Split-brain studies. Did "HE-ART" example with those whose corpus callosum was cut. He studied how people who have the two halves of the brain separated function in comparison to those o do not and looked into what bodily functions are controlled by each half of the brain
The area in the left frontal lobe named after him that directs muscle movement involved in speech. He did his studies wit a subject who could only speak one word, "Tan". The person damaged in this area has speech that makes sense but has difficulty speaking
The Wernicke's Area is an area on the left temporal lobe involved with language, understanding/comprehension. A person damaged in this area uses correct words but they do not make sense.
He pioneered the study on just noticeable difference (JND). It became known as Weber's law; the JND between stimuli is a constant fraction of the intensity of the standard stimulus. E.g. the bigger the standard stimulus, the larger increment needed to get a noticeable difference
Hubel and Wiesel
study with cats of the activities of neurons in the visual cortex, feature detectors
Trichromatic Theory of color vision: said 3 types f color receptors in eye
McCarley and Hobson
Created activation-synthesis theory: dreams are a result of random bursts of electrical activity in the brain, therefore dreams are meaningless
Role theory of hypnosis
Dissociation Theory of hypnosis, believed in divided consciousness "hidden observer"
"Father of Behaviorism"- Did Little Albert study; classical conditioning
Operant conditioning- positive and negative reinforcement and punishment. Created Skinner Box
Contingency model, cognitive explanation for classical conditioning, thought is involved in CC
Garcia Effect/Learned Taste Aversion, taste preferences based on conditioning
latent learning, cognitive maps
insight learning (ah ha! moments); chimp studies
Observational Learning; Bobo Doll Study, aggression
Conducted a hospital experiment to test the diagnosis of hospitals make on new patients. He also wanted to see the impact on behavior on being a patient. He proved that once you are diagnosed with a disorder, your care would not be very good in a mental hospital setting.
Learned helplessness is the giving up reaction, the quitting response that follows from the belief that whatever you do doesn't matter, can lead to depression. Also created Positive Psychology
Rational Emotive Therapy-focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions
Humanist, client-centered therapy using acceptance, unconditional positive regard, empathy, active listening
Mary Cover Jones
Counterconditioning, "Mother of behavior therapy", She maintained that fear could be unlearned. She could have taught Little Albert, to be unafraid of rabbits.
cognitive-behavior therapy, cognitive triad
helped change treatment of those with mental disorders to be more humane in the US
Four-stage theory of cognitive development.
3. Concrete operational
4. formal operational
Neo-Freudian, created eight stages of psychosocial development/"crises" in each stage
She maintained that Kohlberg's work was developed only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual moral judgments of men and women
Studied theory of attachment in infant Rhesus monkeys. Contact comfort
"Strange Situation" experiment to test attachment between child and caregiver
Three Styles of parenting: Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive
imprinting, "Mother Goose"
Her theory on death/dying proposes that the terminally ill pass though a sequence of 5 stages:
3. Bargaining with God
Continuity of development, scaffolding, zone of proximal development, believed we develop cognitively at our own pace through social interaction not in stages
Neo-Freudian, believed that childhood social not sexual tensions are crucial for personality formation
Neo-Freudian, people had conscious and unconscious awareness-two layers of unconscious personal & collective, archetypes in collective unconscious
Paul Costa and Robert McCrae
Developed "Big Five" Model of Personality (OCEAN: Openness to experiences, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticisim)
Three levels of traits:
1. Cardinal trait-it is the dominant trait that characterizes your life; (not everyone has one)
2. Central trait-one or two common to all people
3. Secondary trait- many different traits may surface in some situations and not in others
Trait theorist: Personality is determined to a large extent by genes. He used the terms
used factor analysis to create 16PF, also identified fluid and crystallized intelligence
Personality is linked to body type on the grounds that both are governed by genetic endowment. Endomorph (large), Mesomorph (average), Ectomorph (skinny)
Critic of Freud's theories, womb envy, basic anxiety
He developed one of the first protective tests: the Inkblot test. The subject views the inkblots and projects to the observer aspects of their unconscious/personality.
general IQ tests. A Frenchman designed a test that would identify slow learners in need of remedial help. It was not that valuable in America as it was too culture bound.
Revised Binet's IQ test and established norms for American children
he established an intelligence test especially for adults. It became the WAIS, Weschler Intelligence Test for Adults. He developed tests for preschool and school-age as well. These tests included verbal and performance sections to eliminate language barriers.
Found that specific mental talents were highly correlated. He concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he labeled "g" for general ability
Triarchic theory of intelligence.
1. academic problem-solving intelligence
2. Practical intelligence
3. Creative intelligence
Theory of multiple intelligences: Verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalistic
Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacbsen
did "bloomer" study (told teachers certain kids were gifted and they did better in school based on how they were treated even though they weren't), self-fulfilling prophecy
James & Lange (Theory)
Their theory asserts that the perception of emotion is our awareness of our physiological response to emotion arousing stimuli. e.g. sight of coming car-pounding heart-fear
Cannon & Bard (Theory)
Their theory asserts that an emotion-arousing stimulus triggers cognitive body responses simultaneously. E.g. arousal and emotion are simultaneous
To experience emotions
1. must be physically aroused
2. must cognitively label arousal
The theory that facial expressions are universal
their law states the more complex the task, the lower level of arousal tolerated
did interviews regarding sexual activity
Masters and Johnson
studied the biology of sex, identified the sexual response cycle
Holmes and Rahe
SSRS scale, LCUs, measures stress (life changes)
general adaptation syndrome for stress (alarm, reaction, exhaustion stages)
he said that humans have an inborn native ability to develop language, a language acquisition device
linguistic determinism/linguistic relativity hypothesis: language determines the way we think and/or thinking determines our language
The first to conduct scientific studies on forgetting: first, a rapid loss followed by a gradual declining rate of loss called the "forgetting curve"
Leading researcher in memory. She is best known for her work regarding the misinformation effect, constructive memory and eyewitness testimony
Line study on conformity. His experiment had a subject unaware of his situation, test to see if he would conform if all the members of the group gave an incorrect answer.
Conducted a study on obedience when he had a subject shock a patient to the extent that they would be seriously injuring the patient.
Bibb Latane and John Darley
Created mock emergency situations to test diffusion of responsibility/bystander intervention/prosocial behavior based on Kitty Genovese tragedy
Cognitive dissonance. Did boring task study and gave $1 and $20 to lie
Camp study with rival boy groups, contact theory, superordinate goals