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Infant Pre-lang & Lang. Development
Terms in this set (70)
When does brain development begin? What happens to the brain and neurons by end of 2nd trimester?
18 days of conception
_sensation, perception, motor control, cognition
_turns brain into mind (myelination + synaptogensis)
What is sensation?
registering sensory information
Does the brain have all the cells needed at birth? If so, how are they organized?
_brain has all cells needed at birth
_internal brain change
What happens to sensation at birth?
big change in sensation
What is a newborns motor pattern?
reflexive bx to acting upon world
Sensation and Motor Control--
What happens at 2 months?
selective attending and habituation
What is perception?
_make sense of incoming stimuli
_look for patterns
What is key for postnatal perception?
1. Newborn abilities
2. Perception within few months
1. sound duration, loudness, frequency, phonemes
2. mother's voice, frequency changes, patterns
Visual @ within days, 2 months, 3 months
_within few days = expressions and mom's face
_2 months = internalized concept of face
_3 months = facial differences
How does an infant's perception move?
What does that mean?
recognition to evocation
1. multiple exposures linked to concepts
2. presence of concept elicits descriptions
3. concept is evoked without external stimulation
When is perceptual ability usually restricted by?
restricted to native language's speech sounds by 8-10 months
What is synaptogenesis?
formation of new synapses
Describe formation of auditory patterns
forms perceptual framework for learning first words
What information is embedded in speech?
_prosody or flow patterns
Describe 8 m/o regularities in infant-directed speech (IDS). Are they sensitive to it?
_phonotactic probabilities (word boundaries)
_better phonotactic representations = larger vocabulary
_patterns individual words
Motor Control: Neonate
_crying, experiences sounds, breathing efficiency
_non-crying sounds = comfort sounds = Quasi-Resonate Nuclei (QRNs)
Motor Control: Neonate--
What do infants gradually gain control over?
When does gooing and cooing occur? What consonants do they use?
_2 to 6 months
_back consonants =
When does babbling occur? What is it?
_2 to 6 months
_fully resonant nuclei (FRN)
_vowels to CV
_back consonants to labial cons.
Is there a relationship between babbling and language spoken around infant?
little direct relationship
What happens at 6-8 months? What is it?
_long strings of repeated syllables
When does the echolalic period occur? What happens?
8 to 12 months
_echolalia if in repertoire
_jargon = intonation + sounds
_phonetically consistent forms (PCFs)
Why are gestures significant?
first time child demonstrates intention to communicate
Why are speech recognition and production a problem? How is this accomplished?
_variety of speakers and contexts
no direct instruction
_closely coordinated by infant
_accomplished thru ongoing communication
What happens in cognition?
_infants puts everything together
How is experience filtered?
thru information processing
What happens during the 1st year for language growth?
demonstrate information processing abilities
_ability to engage, maintain, disengage, shift focus
_increases working memory
_keep up with speed
_phono. represent. forms template
_built up gradually from input
_semantic rep. form with
What is Piaget's theory?
learning = adaptation + organization
motivation for learning = equilibrium
Learning + provide example
_adaptation to new information
--newborn sucking reflex
representations of reality
Adaptation to new information (2)
Is motivation extrinsic? What happens?
_learning actively involved
What happens to newborns within a few months? (behavior-wise)
object (bottle) = message (eat)
What happens to newborns by 8 months?
_able to discern change of goal by another's behavior
action takes on meaning thru shared properties
When do symbols appear?
same time as symbolic play and representation
What happens at 18 months?
use word with referent present
2. Audition (hearing)
1. 8 in + preferences
2. functioning at birth, best frequency = human voice, entrainment & preferences
_precursor to joint reference (protoconversations)
_routines = provides scripts
_comprehends one or two freq. used words by elements
_brackets word boundaries
_clusters familiar, predictable sounds together
first time child demonstrates intention
--gestures = intention
Match the following months to proper development stages
2. gestural (show self, showing, full gestural complex)
What is the development of each gesture?
gesture --> gesture + vocal. --> gesture + verbalization
_short utterance length, simple syntax, small core vocab
_approp. and consistent
_strings of high redundant utterances
_treats infant bxs as meaningful
Development of Joint Reference
I = mastering joint attention (0-6)
II = intention to communicate (7-8)
III = gestures + vocalization (8-12)
IV = naming and topicalization (12+)
Why won't some children not obtain strong social and communicative base for language?
environmental or individual factors or both
If children do not obtain a strong social + communicative base, what is the result?
language and communication impairment
When is a word a word?
_Whole object principle
_Novel name-nameless assumption
What are the toddlers expressive learning strategies? (4)
_evocative = !
_hypothesis = ?
_interrogative = wassat?
What is predominate until age 3?
When does substitution occur?
after age 3
What are some toddler parents' teaching strategies?
_provide good models when talking to language-learning children
_child-directed speech (CDS) = few utterances, slow with long pauses, small vocab
What should parents do in response to a child's utterance? Is it important? Why?
Important, increases likelihood of imitation or longer utterance by child
How does a child construct morphemes?
does not construct morphemes one at a time
--constructs using already learned pieces
_words express intentions prev. expressed in gestures
What are the predominate phonemes? Why?
/m/w/b/p/h/k/g/-- bilabials, glottal, velar
bc often have fave phonemes
What are the syllable structure that predominates?
When do toddlers only talk about things he/she knows?
presence of referent
What are the two gesture-speech combinations?
When do vocabulary spurts begin?
after about 100 words
does a child need to learn a word?
as few as 3 times
What is word meaning based on?
_semantic features = size, shape, characteristics
_fx = use, purpose
How else does a child understand words?
fast or initial mapping
= semantic range widens as word freed from aspects of initial context
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Language Development in Children
CSD 3366 Chapter 4
Dr. Blake English Exam 2
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