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Middle Ages and Feudalism
Time period after the fall of Rome, when the western part of Europe slipped into the Dark Ages (Middle Ages) and the eastern part of Europe (Modern Day Turkey and Russia) entered into a golden age period, known as the Byzantine Empire.
Terms in this set (53)
Causes of the collapse of the Roman Empire
1. Empire was too large to control
2. Corrupt government (Senate)
3. Loss of morality
5. Invasion from barbarians (Germanic Tribes)
6. Latifundia (Large plantations) led to the decline of small farmers, which led to a loss of jobs.
7. Unemployment, led to an increase in crime.
In the Western part of Europe, the period after the fall of the Roman Empire. The Dark Ages were a period of isolation and invasion with no advances in learning.
a decentralized political, and social system during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service (Mutual Obligation). This mutual obligation created a strict or rigid social class system.
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land. Everything was found and created on the manors because of the chaos of the Middle Ages.
Architecture of the Middle Ages that features high pointed steeples, gargoyles, stained glass windows, flying buttresses, and pointed arch ways.
Architecture of the Early Middle Ages that features rounded arches for windows and doors, thick walls, dimly lit interior and high windows.
After the fall of Rome the Eastern portion of the Empire that survived. They preserved the Greek and Roman culture. Had a major influence on Russian culture.
Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages
The most powerful institution during the Middle Ages. Was a political organization that collected taxes (tithe) and had a court (Inquisition). Created the only stability in western Europe during the Middle Ages.
Head of the Roman Catholic Church
"Charles the Great" leader of the Franks (France); unified most of the Christian lands of Europe with the help of Pope Leo III who crowned him "Holy Roman Emperor" 800 C.E.
Held no real political power during the Middle Ages. Granted land (Fiefs) to lords in return for protection.
A land grant from the King to a lord.
A medieval association of people working at the same occupation, which controlled its members wages and prices.
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from Muslim Caliphate (rule).
Causes of the Crusades
- Pope wanted more power
- Recapture Holy Land of Jerusalem
- Hatred of non-Christians
- Escape from feudal oppression (Especially peasants and serfs)
- Christians wanted to be absolved of their sins (heaven)
- New opportunities for wealth and land the promise of salvation
Effects of the Crusades
- Increased religious hatred b/w Christians, Jews, and Muslims
- Renewal of interest in classic texts, art and literature
- Cultural Diffusion:Trade increased between Europe and the Middle East
- New technology: building & mapmaking skills, compasses, military skill and weaponry from the East
- Spread of the Black Plague
- Increase of the growth of towns and cities
- Increased the power of Kings and Nobles
- Roman Catholic Church begins to lose power
- Growth of trade: silk, spices, sugar, etc
- End of Manorialism
-Now economy based on money, not land!
Nobleman who owned the manors during Middle Ages.
Warriors who served the lords and protected the manors during the Middle Ages in western Europe.
Small farmers who worked the lords land, created food for the manors in return for protection.
An epidemic transmitted to humans by the bites of rodent fleas. It was one of the scourges of our early history. There are three major forms of the disease: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic.
Pope Urban II
Pope who called for the first Crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims in 1096
12th-century Muslim ruler; reconquered most of the crusader kingdoms. Famous in the Third Crusade along with Richard the Lionhearted of England
Richard the Lionhearted
Along with phillip II he organized the third crusade(Kings Crusade), the Christians took back acre, muslims kept jerusalem, negotiated a settlement with Saladin to allow Christians access to Jerusalem, Actually perferred Muslim Physicians over Christian ones.
small farmers who created food for the manor
skilled workers who created tools and weapons for the manor.
traders that worked for themselves, selling other peoples products (respected for wealth in Europe)
Japanese Feudal Hierarchy
Hereditary system you are born into in Japan: Emperor, Shogun, Daimyo, Samurai, Peasants/Artisans & Merchants
A decentralized, rigid political and social system based on loyalty and land; no social mobility.
A code of behavior that stressed simplicity, courage, honor & loyalty to one's lord (Daimyo/Shogun)
A ritual form committing suicide to regain one's honor; done if a samurai was dishonored.
A code of behavior for European knights that stressed respect, courage, honor, loyalty to one's lord (Lord/King)
Highest position; A symbolic religious figure; No power; He was divine; a God on Earth
Supreme military commander; held all political power
Wealthy landowners who was allies with a shogun
Warriors & farmers
Held the lowest level in Japanese society
Rulers after the fall of the Western half of the Roman Empire (Franks, Visigoths, Ostragoths & Vandals)
Few people would read or write during the middle ages, except priests, monks & the rich.
The largest and most powerful Germanic kingdom
Invaders of Medieval times
The Vikings, Muslims & Magyars
Japanese ruling dynasty that centralized the gov't under one Shogunate & isolated Japan from foreign influences for 200 years
Fear of foreigners
Islamic Golden Age
Period of peace & prosperity; cultural diffusion of learning preserved and advanced in the Muslim caliphate led to advances in Europe
1215 document that listed the rights of English citizens and limited the power of the English monarch. Rights included trial by jury, no taxation without representation, protection of the law, and habeas corpus
Legislature of England; House of Lords & House of Commons
William the Conqueror
A Norman (viking decent ruled N.France) who invaded and conquered the Anglo-Saxons then crowned himself king of England.
100 Years War
Fought between England & France. France wins
Joan of Arc
17yr old girl from Orleans; message from god she would lead the French to Victory against the English. She did win. Later captured by British & burned at the stake as a witch.
Ferdinand & Isabella
King & queen of Spain; united the country politically through marriage & religiously kept Spain Catholic
Reconquer Spain: Expelled all Muslims & Jews (non-Catholics)
A terrifying period of interrogation regarding heresy, in which many people were tortured, convicted and killed. This was spurred by fear of witches, heretics, Jews, and Muslims and was a byproduct of the reconquista.
King of England (grandson of William) in the 12th century. Changes the Judicial system: established the jury system & Common Law. (His sons are King Richard the Lion-Hearted, and King John.)
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