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Exam 4: Ch. 14 CV Disease
Terms in this set (44)
One in ________ deaths worldwide—about _______million deaths each year—is attributable to CVDs
CVD is the number __________ cause of mortality for women as well as for men
The _________ CVD mortality rate is highest in high-income countries, because those countries have the highest proportion of older adults in their populations and the prevalence of CVD increases with age.
_______________ mortality rates for CVD are higher in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries
About _____% of people who die from CVD are in their 30s
About _____% are in their 40s
About _____% are in their 50s, and about _____% are in their 60s
Only _____% of CVD deaths occur in people who are 70 years old or older
About ______% of 30-year-old men and ______% of 30-year- old women will die from CVD before their 70th birthdays
T/F: Preventing premature deaths (deaths before age 70) is a global health priority.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to "reduce by one________ premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases through prevention and treatment" (SDG 3.4) by 2030.
a chronic condition in which the heart is not able to pump enough blood to meet the body's need for oxygen, may have symptoms like fatigue that reduce their quality of life for many years
peripheral artery disease (PAD)
have narrowed blood vessels that impair blood circulation and can cause severe leg pain and cramping when walking (a symptom called claudication)
About ________ of all CVD deaths are attributable to modifiable risk factors: uncontrolled risk factors, tobacco use, high BMI
Uncontrolled risk factors
hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes
Half of all CVD deaths are due to
ischemic heart disease
reduced blood supply
the thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the heart muscle
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) = coronary artery disease (CAD)
atherosclerosis occurs in the arteries that provide blood to the heart, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.
The initial symptom of IHD might be _________, which is chest pain or tightness caused by the heart muscle not getting an adequate supply of oxygen
A ___________ ___________, or heart attack, happens when a blood vessel becomes mostly or fully occluded and a portion of the heart muscle dies due to lack of oxygen.
to physically open and unclog a blocked artery
uses a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body to restore blood flow to the heart muscle by bypassing the damaged area
happens when cells in the brain die due to lack of oxygen
There are two common pathologic processes that cause strokes:
ischemia & hemorrhage
occurs when a blocked blood vessel cuts off blood flow to a portion of the brain
The symptoms of an ischemic stroke are often _____________ when the affected individual does not receive "clot-busting" intravenous thrombolytic medications within hours of the onset of an ischemic stroke.
Ischemic strokes are often preceded by ___________ _________ __________, sometimes called mini-strokes
transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)
occurs when a blood vessel ruptures and causes bleeding in the brain.
T/F: There is a lower case fatality rate for hemorrhagic strokes than for ischemic strokes.
T/F: The relative burden from IHD (such as heart attacks) attacks and strokes varies by country
high blood pressure, typically defined as having an SBP of_______ mm Hg or higher and/or a DBP of _______ or higher.
About 1 in _____ men (24%) and 1 in ____ women (20%) has uncontrolled hypertension.
T/F: Hypertension usually has no symptoms that are apparent to the individual with high blood pressure, but uncontrolled hypertension significantly increases the risk of having a stroke, and it also increases the likelihood of angina, heart attacks, heart failure, aneurysms, kidney failure, sexual dysfunction, and vision loss.
Low- and middle-income countries only about ____% of people with hypertension are taking medications to control their blood pressure.
High-income countries: more than ______% of people with high blood pressure take antihypertensive medication
In high-income countries, __________ use of antihypertensive medications has led to a ___________ in the mean SBP.
In low- and middle-income countries, where these medications are not widely used, the mean SBP is ___________
The SHAKE package of policies for reducing salt intake to less than ________ grams per day
a bulge in the aorta that can rupture and cause a rapid death from internal bleeding
is a disease of the heart muscles that causes the heart to enlarge and become weaker.
rheumatic heart disease
is an inflammatory condition that causes irreversible damage to the heart and heart valves as a result of an untreated infection with group A Streptococcus, like strep throat or scarlet fever.
Use of _______ ________ meds is recommended for people with atrial fibrillation to reduce the risk of stroke
Cardiac arrest is an "____________" problem, in contrast to the "___________" problems that cause heart attacks.
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