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sonography 3 -pancreas
Terms in this set (68)
Pancreas is located in what regions?
In the epigastrium & left hypochomdrium
The pancreas extends from the c-loop of duodenum to the splinic hilum, in an oblique, transverse (horizontal) position
Pancreas lies from __ to __
2nd portion(C-loop) of duodenum to splenic hilum
The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ. T/F
The pancreas appears larger and darker in children and decreases in size and becomes more brighter with age. T/F
The 4 segments the pancreas are:
1. Head-uncinate process 2. Neck 3. Body 4. Tail
------ lies to the right of the superior mesenteric vein against the medial curve of the c- loop of the.
The head of the pancreas
The 4 land marks of the head of the pancreas are:
1. The C loop of the duodenum
2. IVC posterior to the head
3.CBD posterior to the head
4. GDA-anterior to the head
Anterior to posterior dimensions of the head of the pancreas range from -------------cm.
2.0 to 2.5
The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) travels posterior to the --------------------of the duodenum.
-----------is the most inferior part of the pancreas.
-----is the medial projection of the head that lies immediately posterior to the SMV & sometimes SMA.
SMV and SMA are ------------- to the uncinate process.
------Lies immediately anterior to the SMV and SMA.
-----formed by junction of SMV & splenic vein -------------to neck.
Portal vein, posterior
Anterior to posterior dimensions of the neck, body and tail range from --------------cm.
1.0 to 2.0
The landmark for the neck of the pancreas is:
The confluence (SMS+SV+IMV)
The ------------of the pancreas is anterior to SMA & AO
SMV is anterior to SMA.T/F
----- Largest part of pancreas in length.
The body of the pancreas
The 3 land marks for the body of the pancreas are:
AO, SMA & SV-all are posterior to the pancreas
The tail of the pancreas lies to the left of the pancreas body, immediately anterior to the ---------.
The stomach is------------- to the tail & the left kidney is------------ to the tail
Anterior, posterior (the tail is sandwiched between the stomach and the kidney)
-------The portion of the pancreas that lies most superior.
Tail of the pancreas
The head is the most inferior and the tail is the most superior part of the pancreas. T/F
SA is ---------------to the body and tail of the pancreas.
The tail of the pancreas is anterior and medial to the spleen. T/F
The 2 landmarks for the tail of the pancreas are:
The stomach-anterior to the pancreas and the SV-posterior to the pancreas
The two ducts pancreas are:
1. Wirsung's duct (main) 2. Santorini's duct (accessory)
The size of duct of wirsung is?
2 -3 mm
Measurement of the pancreatic duct should be outer to outer. T/F
False, inner to inner
The ---------- and _______joined together or separately the ducts enter the ------------
Common bile duct, Main Pancreatic duct, duodenum (ampulla of vater)
Santorini's duct enters the duodenum separately from Wirsung's duct. T/F
The vessels of the pancreas are:
1. GDA 2. SMA 3. SA
The branch from gastroduodenal artery, which divides into anterior and posterior branches to supply the head and neck, is:
Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery
Inferior pancreatico duodenal artery is a branch of:
GDA supplies--------------parts of the pancreas.
Head and neck
SMA supplies --------------part of the pancreas.
SA supplies--------------parts of the pancreas.
body and tail
Splenic vein drains the ------------ and ----------- of the pancreas.
Body and tail
SMV drains the--------- and ----------- of the pancreas.
Pancreas is an exocrine and endocrine glad. T/F
Exocrine function of the pancreas is performed by:
Acinar cells secrete:
What are the enzymes produced by the exocrine part of the pancreas?
1. Amylase - carbohydrates
2. Lipase - fat
3. Trypsin - proteins to amino acids
The exocrine enzymes are carried by:
Pancreatic duct (Wirsung's duct (main), Santorini's duct (accessory)
------are endocrine cells located in the in the pancreas.
Islets of Langerhans cells
Endocrine function produces the hormone ----------to prevent diabetes mellitus.
Failure of the pancreas to furnish sufficient insulin leads to:
Beta cells of the pancreas produce?
Evaluation of the pancreas is a technical challenge to the sonographer due to:
1. Its retroperitoneal location
2. It's posterior position to stomach and bowel
3. The pancreas is not covered by a capsule, Overlying bowel gas is the most common problem
---------- and ------------are the primary modalities used for imaging patients with pancreatic disease.
CT and MRI
Enlargement of the head can cause compression of the:
The ultrasound appearance of the pancreas is:
Isoechoic or hyperechoic compared to the liver. It is darker in young patients and becomes more echogenic and smaller in size with age.
When the ducts are identified, the u/s appearance is:
Anechoic tubular structures with echogenic walls
------ Is a condition in which a ring of pancreatic tissue surrounds the C-loop of the duodenum.
Annular pancreas can causes obstruction of the duodenum. T/F
--------- is pancreatic tissue that has no vascular or structural connection to the pancreas.
Ectopic pancreas/hetrotropic pancreatic tissue
Failure of the dorsal and ventral pancreatic ductal systems to fuse during embryonic development is called:
Most common anomaly of the pancreas is:
Patient prep for pancreas scanning is:
Fasting for 8 to 12 hours. 2 to 4 cups of water or noncarbonated drink
Patient positioning for pancreas scanning is:
Supine, sitting semierect to erect
The transducer choice for pancreas scanning is:
2.5 MHz or 3.5 MHz curvilinear. 5.0 MHz curvilinear for thin patients
What are some of the indications for scanning pancreas?
Epigastric pain, Pancreatitis (acute, chronic), Jaundice (head tumor), newly developed diabetes
Structures that may be confused with the duct are:
1. Collapsed stomach wall anteriorly
2. Collapse doudenal wall laterally
3. SA superiorly
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