boundaries separating British, French, Belgian, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, and German spheres of influence in Africa were superimposed. That is, they were often drawn as straight lines with little awareness of or concern for the different ethnic groups living there. In East Africa, for example, the Somali people lived in lands that were partitioned between the British, French, and Italians. In numerous other instances tens and sometimes hundreds of different ethnic groups were combined in a single colony (1) Cities possess dense concentrations of people
(2) Cities, unlike rural settlements, are distinguished by functional complexity
(3) Cities are centers of institutional power associated with the business, governmental, or cultural activities of that place
(4) Cities are dynamic, human-created environments that possess complex patterns of specialized land use (for example, residential, industrial, public, and private)
(5) Cities are linked, via trade, transportation, or communication, to other urban and rural places
(6) As places, cities are full of contradictions.
Geographic location (e.g., accessibility to markets, natural resources, other cities)
Industrialization and globalization (e.g., investment, entrepreneurialism, a city's image)
Demographic trends (e.g., rural-to-urban migration, natural population increase, urban-to-urban migration)
Policies promoting economic growth (e.g., improved transportation and communication infrastructure)
Improved services and amenities (e.g., public transportation, urban parks, public safety)
A principal center of global economic power that significantly influences the world's business
command centers that greatly influence the flow of information/ goods throughout the global urban system
increasing importance of advanced professional services
Recognized center of political power and influence, often because of the concentration of government or institutional functions, e.g., United Nations, International Monetary Fund.
Major site of knowledge and information production from public and private sources, e.g., government documents, university studies, and leading business or financial companies.
Strong integration in the global economy.
High volume of interactions with other world cities.
Presence of a major international airport.
Major provider of advanced professional services such as accounting, financial services, insurance, and law.
State of the art telecommunications technologies and infrastructure, e.g., fiber optics, wireless networking.
Presence of a highly skilled, mobile, and multicultural labor pool.
Heavy reliance on a two-tiered structure of personnel in businesses and corporations that consists of an elite class associated with service sector jobs, e.g., financial managers, and an underclass associated with low or unskilled jobs, e.g., janitorial staff.
High-profile reputation as a center for arts and entertainment.
European cities: medieval characteristics, including remnants of a surrounding city wall, a historic core consisting of a church, marketplace, and dense concentration of buildings, an irregular street pattern, and a low central city skyline
pedestrian, public transportation, small spread private home ownership, preservation of historic stuff, desirable central cities
colonial cities: , colonial cities functioned as administrative, economic, and/or military centers. In some cases colonial cities were built near or even grafted onto an extant indigenous city or urban settlement. In other cases entirely new cities were built. Significantly, colonial cities were defined by social segregation, in which European residential and commercial districts were spatially separated from African market areas and residential districts
islamic cities: many so-called Islamic cities have several features in common with the medieval cities of Europe: notably, a religious center (anchored by a cathedral in Europe and a mosque in Islamic cities), a central marketplace (called a suq in Islamic cities), residential quarters based on ethnicity or occupation, an irregular street pattern, and a surrounding defensive wall