History and Structure Final Exam
Terms in this set (37)
America's land mass doubles, westward expansion, American English becoming a continental language, more diversity brought to the language
Noah Webster's "American Dictionary of the English Language"
shows that American English is significant enough to be recored, a descriptive dictionary from the beginning
motion pictures with sound and television appears
another medium for language, loss of regional dialects, the ones that are portrayed in the media are widely inaccurate though there is the idea that the people on radio and TV represent what an American sounds like
World War II
Americans take the language overseas
inception of the internet
language at hyper speed, became entertainment, technology and language both changing rapidly
2/3 from southeastern England (Kent)
What people made up the Northern (New England) dialect region of American English?
In what region were 2/3 of people from southeastern England (Kent)?
more than half from southern England especially Southwest; some Scots
What people made up the Southern dialect region of American English?
In what region were more than half of the people from Southern England especially the Southwest plus some Scots?
people from Northern England, and some Scots and Irish later
What people made up the Midland dialect region of American English, especially in the Appalachians?
In what region were people from Northern England, and some Scots and Irish later settling?
What developed from Midland with the westward movement?
The General American dialect developed from what region with westward movement?
Tangier Island, VA in Chesapeake Bay
A peculiarity in the origins of American English, what place is said to preserve a dialect most like the Elizabethan English spoken by earliest settlers?
Tangier Island, VA in Chesapeake Bay is known preserving a dialect most like what?
difference in standards (maintenance of British received pronunciation; Americans love/hate these accents; BritEng for spoken word of upper class, AmerEng respect for rules and print)
American English preserves more archaic features (more pure and historical)
differences in pronunciation
vocabulary (Brit pissed=drunk, Amer pissed=angry)
differences in spelling (-or/-our, -er/-re, -ize/-ise)
What are the five differences between American and British English?
1) learned from English speakers on plantations in New World
2) starts as a pidgin and later became a creole
these don't explain everything and are limited in scope
problems: the plantations were not the only place they encountered English and discounts African Americans' ability to learn English
What are the two origin theories of African American English?
mixed and limited language for communication between groups without a common language
what is a pidgin?
a pidgin learned and spoken as a native language
what is a creole?
-exclude others (like code)
-to be witty; makes slang expressions short-lived
what are the uses of slang?
do we know anything about the origins of slang?
-Grose's Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue
-lower class mode
four characteristics of slang?
shifting the grammatical use of a word
ex: from a noun to a verb
word made by omitting from a longer word that letters that are thought to be morphemes or affixes
ex: pant from pants
word formed from two or more bases
to form a word by shortening a longer expression
ex: taxi or cab
made by combining two or more existing expressions and shortening at least one of them
ex: brunch from breakfast and lunch
word formed from initial letters of other words and pronounced as a word
ex: radar, laser, scuba, fubar, snafu
popularly invented but likely incorrect explanations for the origin of a word that sometimes changes the word's form
ex: hocus pocus
functional shift from a proper noun to a common noun or other part of speech; esp. surnames and brand names
the study of meaning in all aspects
attitude/emotion associated with it
dictionary meaning: concrete signification fo word
the meaning of a word expands to include more referents
meaning contracts to include fewer referents
association of word becomes better
association of a word becomes worse