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8th Grade American History CAP Test
Terms in this set (80)
North America , originally inhabited by _______ ______ was explored and colonized by _______ for ______ and _______ reasons.
American Indians, Europeans, economic, religious
3 Reasons for colonization
1) To spread Christianity beyond Europe
2) To expand their empires (more land)
3) Europeans wanted to become rich (gold, silver, resources, Mercantilism)
Competition for control of territory and resources in North America led to conflict and war among colonizing powers
England, France, Spain, Holland, and Sweden
World powers within North American continent fought over ______.
control of land, resulting battles were the French and Indian War.
New Netherland becomes _______
Also, many Europeans wanted to come to America to avoid _______ __________
What led to the forced migration of Africans to the American colonies
the practice of race-based slavery
The African's knowledge and traditions contributed to _______ of the colonies
Americans felt that Africans provided a _____ source of ____
The _____ economy depended on slavery
The practice of the South depending on slavery led to the perception of _________
all African Americans are inferior
The ideas of enlightenment and dissatisfaction with colonial rule led english colonists to write the _______ and launch the _________
Declaration of Independence , American Revolution
Enlightenment ideas such as natural rights
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
What led the colonists to question the government practices and laws (tax acts)
Enlightenment ideas such as natural rights and the consent of the people to govern themselves
What was the outcome of the American Revolution?
national independence and new political, social, and economic relationships for the American People
Why did the newly independent country , the USA, struggle under the Articles of Confederation?
the 13 colonies acted as 13 independent nations
The biggest success of the USA under the Articles of Confederation were :
the land ordinance of 1785 and the northwest ordinance
The Land Ordinance of 1785
divided the land into townships that could easily be governed
The Northwest Ordinance
described how townships and western lands would be governed including the fact that slavery was outlawed in the Northwest Territory
Problems arising under the Articles of Confederation led to :
the debate over the adoption of the U.S. Constitution
The biggest problems under the Articles of Confederation:
lack of power to enforce laws, levy taxes, regulate trade, and the fact that it required the agreement of all 13 colonies before changes were approved
What did the actions of early presidential administrations establish?
a strong federal government, peaceful transitions of power, repelled foreign invasion
Who was Washington's Secretary of the treasury?
What did Alexander Hamilton do?
payed off all war debt, established a national bank, and put down the Whiskey Rebellion
during Washington's administration; England agrees to leave the Ohio Valley by 1796
Who avoids the war with France/ creation of Navy
The United States added to its territories through _____ and ______
treaties , purchases
Jefferson buys Louisiana Territory from France
limits British and American naval forces on the Great lakes.
The border between the US and Canada is the _____th parallel
Spain gives Florida to the US and claims up to the Oregon Territory
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexico recognizes that Texas is part of the US, Rio Grande is the border between the nations. Mexico ceded the Mexico Cession
Mexico sold land to the US for the transcontinental railroad
Britain and the US agree to split Oregon Territory at the 49th parallel
Westward expansion contributed to _______ and _________ developement, debates over _______ issues, war with ________ , and the displacement of American _______.
economic, industrial, sectional, Mexico, Indians
The United States expanded ____ in am effort to develop economically.
As a result of expanding West, the US developed a system for transportation (_____,_____,______)
roads, canals, railroads
The expansion of the US led to tension with _____ that eventually grew into The United States' War with _______
As the US grew, so did the tension over _____ in the new territories
a series of laws enacted in 1820 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states
Dred Scott v. Sandford
an 1856 supreme court case in which a slave , Dred Scott, sued for his freedom because he had been taken to live in territories where slavery was illegal; the Court ruled against Scott
an 1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico
An 1854 law that established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and gave their residents the right to decide whether to allow slavery
This settlement forced Native Americans out of their land through _____, _____, and _____ _______
treaties, laws, military action
Treaty of Greenville
a 1785 agreement in which 12 Native American tribes surrendered much of present- day Ohio and Indiana to the US Government
Indian Removal Act
this 1830 act called for the government to negotiate treaties that would require Native Americans to locate West
Trail of Tears
the tragic journey of the Cherokee people from their homeland to Indian Territory between 1838 and 1839; thousands of Cherokees died
the belief that the US was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic to Pacific
Louisiana Purchase (Jefferson)
the 1803 purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France
War of 1812
McCulloch v. Maryland
the state of Maryland wanted to tax its branch of the national bank
The Monroe Doctrine
a policy of US opposition to any European interference in the Western Hemispherw, announced by President Monroe in 1823
such as slavery, led to the Civil War
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, Alien and Sedition Acts, Tariff of Abominations/ Doctrine of Nullification
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
V: madison said a state could interpose, or place, itself between the federal government and its citizens
K: Jefferson proposed nullification , the idea that a state could nullify the federal law within the state
Alien and Sedition Acts
a series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants to the US
Tariff of Abominations
an 1828 law that raised the tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods,; it upset Southerners who felt that economic interests of the Northeast were determining national economic policies
Doctrine of Nullification
a right of a state to object a federal law that it considers unconstitutional
Who favored high tariffs and why?
Northern businessmen, to protect their businesses and and avoid competition from foreign products
Who favored low or no tariffs and why?
southerners, who imported manufactured products, to keep their costs low and they feared that foreign nations would retaliate against american tariffs by not buying american cotton
Who favored a national bank and why?
North easterners, it could help finance new business ventures in their section of the country
Who distrusted a national bank and why?
Westerner farmers, they tended to be poor and the bank favored the wealthy. the objected bank policies that made it hard to obtain loans
who favored government programs and why?
Westerners, to improve internal improvements such as roads and canals to allow more people to travel out west and made it easier to ship agriculture and products east
Who tended to object the expense associated with building internal improvements and why?
Southerners, most improvement took place in the North and West .
Who favored cheap sale of public lands and why?
Westerners, as a way to acquire better farmland and attract more people (more political power)
Who opposed the cheap sale of public lands and why?
North easterners , they worried of losing factory workers and viewed cheap land sales as a way the federal government would lose money (source of income for the federal government)
_____ viewed slavery as important to their agricultural way of life and favored the expansion of _______ into the new territories as _______ cultivation moved west.
Southerners, slavery, cotton
Who opposed slavery and why?
Northerners, did not rely on slaves for a workforce and thought of it as a moral wrong
Examples how the extension of slavery prompted much debate in the 1840s and 1850s
Wilmont Proviso, the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas- Nebraska Act
The debate over slavery culminated with the _____'s exercise of the ultimate ______'-right secession
Why was the American Civil War fought?
to resolve the issue of states' rights versus federal union of states, and whether or not the nation would continue to embrace slavery
The _________ period resulted in changes to the US Constitution, and affirmation of federal authority and lingering social and political differences
Who won the Civil War?
The North (Union)
Who lost the Civil War?
the secessionist states (South, Confederacy)
What did the Civil War do to America
emancipated slaves, and began the period of reconstruction in the South
13,14,15 . ended slavery and attempted to protect the rights of freed men
What did the Southern states have to do before being allowed to rejoin the Union?
prove their allegiance to the federal government by completing certain actions
Some Southerners continues to resent the federal government and its new policies by
resenting the freed slaves and their freedom and began to enact laws known as the black codes and forming organizations such as the Klu Klux Klan KKK
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