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Sample Test Qs from Cliff's Notes, 2nd Edition

Which vowel pattern is most inconsistent in its pronunciation: ai, ee, ea, oa

ea: think dream vs. dread

A phoneme is...

A speech sound and the smallest unit of language

If a 2nd grader cannot
blend /c/ /a/ /t/ into a word and
responds with kitten, what instruction would be useful?

Instruction in:
phonemic awareness

In English there are 26 letters but there are how many phonemes?

There are approximately 40 phonemes in English.

The approximately 40 phonemes in English are spelled how many ways?

Approximately 250 different spellings are used for the 40, or so, phonemes in English

Can instruction in phonemic awareness
including formal and explicit reading instruction develop the ability to blend phonemes into words?


Phonemic awareness is...

Understanding the distinct units of sounds in a language

Blending phonemes is a skill that a student should possess by age what or what grade?

Age 6 or first grade

Is matching sounds to letters a phonemic awareness task?

Phonemic awareness is the

understanding of the

distinct units of sound in a language.

Are blending and segmenting important prerequisites to reading?


When an ESL student selects 'thrown' instead of 'throne'
to identify a picture of a throne,
should the teacher provide individualized homophone instruction?

* This is a common source of confusion for ESL students
* This is not a spelling problem.

When an ESL student selects 'thrown' instead of 'throne'
to identify a picture of a throne,
might this be an example of a spelling problem?

Not likely (apparently)

Which statement most closely exhibits the speech pattern of a 5-year-old:
- This tree was made by me
- I make it
- I paint my hands
- Me paint

This tree was made by me

Why is "I make it" not consistent with 5-year-old speech?

5-year-olds possess an understanding of
syntax and pragmatics
this statement does not reflect

Pragmatics refers to...

Pragmatics refers to the rules of conversation

Does syntax refer to the rules for
organizing words into sentences?

Syntax refers to the rules for
organizing words into sentences

"Me paint" exhibits the speech pattern of a child of what age?

A 2-year-old.
2-year-olds use telegraphic speech.

Telegraphic speech refers to...

Using just enough words to get meaning across

Do children have the ability to combine words and phrases into sentences at age 5?

By age 4 or 5 children can combine words and phrases into sentences.

When do children begin rehearsing language?

Children begin rehearsing language
long before they ever attend school.

The statement "This tree was made by me" will not occur until a child is about age...

At about age 4 or 5
children have the correct understanding of
syntax and verbal constructions
to create, "this tree was made by me."

Name 4 strategies that help to improve
a child's natural ability
to speak linguistically correct English.

1. recasting
2. expanding
3. echoing
4. labeling

What is recasting?

* is a strategy for helping a child improve their ability to speak linguistically correct English

* is rephrasing what a child said in a different way

* recast could be in a question

An example of recasting would be?

An example of recasting:
C: Child points to favorite book and says: "book."
A: "Yes, that's your favorite book, called "Goodnight Moon""

What is expanding?

* is a strategy for helping a child improve their ability to speak linguistically correct English

* is restating in a linguistically correct form

An example of expanding would be?

An example of expanding:
C: "Dog barking"
A: "Yes, the dog is barking"

What is labelling?

* identifying and naming objects

An example of labeling would be?

An example of labeling:
C: Points to a ball
A: "Right. That is a ball."

What is echoing?

* repeating the 1 or 2 word sentence the child has said

Can recasting, expanding, labeling or echoing be rehearsed or planned?

While these strategies help improve language patterns
they are only effective when they are a natural extension of how parents respond to children.

Rehearsal and planning is likely to prevent a natural response.

Baby talk is also known as...

* Motherese & parentese
* All refer to infant directed speech

What distinguishes infant-directed speech? Name 4 characteristics.

Infant directed speech:
1* is higher pitched than standard speech

2* has a cooing characteristic

3* has glissando-like pitch changes

4* is slower with a more repetitive tone

Why would infant-directed speech be useful?

Pros of infant-directed speech:
* higher pitched voice appeals to and holds attention of infants

* might aid acquisition of pragmatics

What might be a down-side of motherese?

Con of motherese:
* Does not model linguistically correct English

Should a teacher preparing a mid-year reading lesson
for a diverse class with many ELL students
focus first on:
. visual tools for the lesson
. portfolios w/strategies for @ student
. strategies in all native languages at @ level
. finding culturally sensitive read-alouds

Student portfolios should be the primary focus

Student reading portfolios are valuable for at least 3 reasons. Name them.

Student portfolios:

1* reflect an assessment of reading levels

2* diagnose & meet individual needs

3* provide necessary info for creation of a
"balanced, comprehensive reading program"

A balanced, comprehensive reading program relies on...

A balanced, comprehensive reading program relies on...
* reading materials at the reading levels of all students in a class

* portfolios for @ student that diagnose and meet individual needs

How do visual tools and culturally sensitive read-aloud materials fit into a reading program?

After assessment and possible intervention strategies are conducted, visual tools and culturally sensitive read-aloud materials can be important instructional tools

A 4th-grade student is struggling with decoding 'upsetting.' Their stabs at the word are: upsing, upping. How would you guide the student to read the word?

I would guide the student to:
* read each syllable individually

* lead them to blending all of the syllables

* have them repeat the blend if they don't seem to immediately recognize the word

A 4th-grade student is struggling with decoding 'upsetting.' Their stabs at the word are: upsing, upping. Would you:
> have them participate in an organized effective phonics program
> provide explicit instruction and guided practice decoding multisyllabic words

* Providing explicit instruction and guided practice decoding multisyllabic words would be the best remediation for this student

* The phonics program might not address the student's specific problem

What is the value of collecting writing samples from @ student to create inventories of formal and daily writing for each student?

These inventories provide:
* student spelling development info

* basis for planning spelling instruction for student and class

A 1st-grade student is struggling with reading after the teacher has tried some strategies for improvement. What's next?
* Request the help of specialists (reading, RSP, counselor)
* Assess reading, target instruction appropriately, and keep anecdotal records

The best next steps would be:
1* assess the student's reading and target instruction to meet identified skill needs

2* keep anecdotal records of reading behavior

3* communicate with parents

When should a teacher with a struggling reading student request help from specialists in reading, RSP, counseling?

* Turning to specialists in reading, RSP, and/or counseling to help a struggling reading student is appropriate once a teacher has attempted classroom interventions
* Remediation strategies in the classroom are always the 1st level of intervention

> When is the following an appropriate strategy for a struggling reader?

* Read more often with the child to provide encouragement and increase his confidence level
* Have the child model volunteers or peer tutors who provide the student with increased reading time

The strategy would be appropriate for reading skill development
doing a reading assessment and providing targeted instruction directed towards the student's needs

The subjective or nominative case is when:

> The pronoun is the subject of a verb
> The pronoun is the object of a preposition

The pronoun is the subject of a verb.

What is the subjective case?

When a
noun or pronoun
is the subject of a _sentence_:

> I want an iPad.

What is the nominative case?

When a
noun, pronoun, or adjective
is the subject of a _verb_:

> Give the iPad to me.

Pronouns I & me: when does one use which?

Subjective case:
* Use I
> I should throw the ball to John.

Indicative case:
* Use me
> John should throw the ball to me.

Is 'I' or 'me' usually the subject pronoun?


Meaning you are performing the action.

> I gave her the test.

Is 'I' or 'me' usually the object pronoun?


Meaning you are the object of the action,
in other words,
the action is being done _to_ you.

> She gave me the test.

When you are _receiving_ the action will you use 'I' or 'me'?


They gave the cake to John and me.

What is a diction error?

A diction error refers to improper word usage such using effect instead of affect

Between or among--what's the difference?

* Between is used only when 2 items are being addressed -or- between is used when one-to-one relationships in a group are discussed
> She sat between her suitors
> There is close friendship between members of the club

* Among is used for collective and unidentified relations of 3 or more
> How many quilters are there among us?

Allusion or illusion--what's the difference?

* Allusion is an indirect or passing reference
> an allusion to Shakespeare

* Illusion is a false idea or belief
> the illusion of family togetherness

Invoke or evoke--what's the difference?

* Invoke is to cite or appeal to someone or something as an authority
> she invoked his help

* Evoke is to bring or recall to the conscious mind or to invoke a spirit or deity
> the awkward kid evoked giggles from his sisters

Affect or effect--what's the difference?

* Affect is most often a verb and refers to having an effect
> the dampness began to affect my health

* Effect is most often a noun and refers to a result, consequence or impression, etc.
> my father's warnings had no effect on me

What is the discovery process in writing?

The discovery process
* the process a writer uses to gather and discover ideas

* an initial step in writing

What does the writing term invention mean?

Invention is an older term for the discovery process

Prewriting refers to...

* refers to invention or the discovery process in writing

* initial brainstorming step in which a writer gathers ideas & examples

During a 40-minute essay exam what should a 7th-grade student be doing with their last 3 or 4 minutes?
* proofread & make only minor changes
* quickly write a summary or conclusion

The last 3 or 4 minutes of a 40-minute essay exam should be used for:
* proofreading and making minor changes

In a dictionary, where is the meaning of pronunciation symbols usually found?

The meaning of pronunciation symbols is usually found at the bottom of each page--in most American dictionaries

For an overnight research paper on a current famous actor should 7th-graders turn to an encyclopedia or the Internet?

* The internet would provide more up-to-date information than an encyclopedia.

* Students need to be guided towards reliable sources and warned that not all that one finds on the internet is accurate.

What does the literary term personification mean?

Personification gives human qualities to an inanimate object.
> "And this same flower that smiles today, tomorrow will by dying."

What does the literary term simile mean?

A simile is a comparison using like or as
> Slow as molasses in January

What does the literary term irony mean?

Irony is:
* a technique in which a writer conveys a meaning opposite from the words actually used

* Typically used for humor or emphatic effect

> I am certain your theatrical performance will receive the praise it so richly deserves.

What does the literary term dramatic or tragic irony mean?

Tragic or dramatic irony exists:
* when the full significance of the words a character uses is clear to readers or audience but not to the character

* Originally used in Greek tragedy

> Given Einstein is a dog and "sir" does not know this: "Sir, you are as smart as Einstein ever was"

What does the literary term metaphor mean?

* Figure of speech
* Word or phrase applied to a word or action to which it is not literally applicable
> I had fallen through a trapdoor of depression
> "Block that metaphor" (comment on J's paper)

What does the literary term tragedy mean?

* A tragedy is a literary work that deals with tragic events usually leading to downfall or destruction
* Tragedies usually have an UNhappy ending
* Greek tragedies is the dramatic genre

What does the literary term persona mean?

* the aspect of someone's character presented to or perceived by others
> her public persona

What does the literary term protagonist mean?

* the hero or heroine
* one of the main characters in a literary work
* usually in conflict with the antagonist

What does the literary term antagonist mean?

* villain

Which word cannot be used to define the word "persona"
> protagonist > mask
> second voice > alter ego

"Protagonist" cannot be used to define "persona"

Does the point in the plot called the climax refer to the:
> turning point of the story
> ending of the story
> falling action

Climax refers to the:
* turning point of the story

The point in a plot where there is a rising action and in which a conflict takes a decisive turn it its...


Falling action typically occurs after what point in a story's plot?

Falling action typically occurs after the climax

In a literary work, denouement refers to what part of a plot?

Denouement refers to the solution of a problem
the final outcome of the conflict

It means untangling in French ;-)

A narrative poem that tells a story and was written to be sung is called what?

A ballad:
* Narrative poem that tells a story
* Was written to be sung

Do ballads use sophisticated prose or they simply folk poems?

Ballads are folk poems

Is Tom Dooley an example of a ballad?

Yes. Tom Dooley is an example of a (sweetheart murder) ballad

Prose: name 3 characteristics

* Written or spoken language in its ordinary form
* No metrical structure

Free verse is a poetry technique with 2 characteristics...

Free verse
* Not rhymed
* No regular metrical pattern

How can one look at a passage and determine whether it is free verse or prose?

Free verse:
* Begins each line with a capital letter regardless of whether a sentence is beginning
* Allows breaks in continuity of printing
* Might be more rhythmic than prose

A poem having:
* 14 lines
* Usually in iambic pentameter
* Formal arrangement of rhymes

A sonnet

Metered poetry would be...

Poetry that rhymes
(vs. free verse poetry)

A way of telling a story allowing the author to enter the minds of the characters is told with an...

Omniscient point of view

Can a narrator have an omniscient point of view?

Absolutely a narrator can have an omniscient point of view

Does an omniscient point of view use 1st or 3rd person?

Omniscient point of view can use either 1st or 3rd person

An author who often employed the omniscient point of view would be...

Charles Dickens often employed the omniscient point of view

The tone of a passage conveys in words what might be conveyed by voice inflection and facial expression.


Tone addresses:
> What is written or
> How something is written

Tone addresses how something is written

Can an author use colloquial language to enhance a rustic setting?

Yes, an author can use colloquial language to enhance a rustic setting

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