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Terms in this set (34)
the place where two plates meet
The distance between two corresponding parts of a wave
influenced by the strength of the earthquake
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
Material through which a wave travels
The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface.
a small earthquake that follows the main earthquake
P waves (Primary waves)
fast, compression waves
S waves (secondary waves)
travel through solids only; cause rock to move in a side-to-side or up & down motion, slower waves
break in rock caused by tension forces, where rock above the fault surface moves down relative to the rock below the fault surface
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward
A type of fault in which rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion.
A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume and causes faulting
the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus
Point at the depth where the rocks ruptured to produce earthquakes; place where quake waves originate
a block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle
The soft layer of the mantle on which the tectonic plates move
Theory of Plate Tectonics
State that Earth's lithosphereis broken into huge, moving slabs of rock driven by motions in the mantle
The thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle
the layer of rock between the Earth's crust and core
A dense ball of solid metal at the center of Earth.
the liquid layer of the Earth's core that lies beneath the mantle and surrounds the inner core
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
rock that has been changed by heat and pressure
rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies
in tectonic plates, the site at which an oceanic plate is sliding under a continental plate.
Ring of Fire
A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
divergent, convergent, transform
A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.
The boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
Law of Superposition
The top rock layer and its fossils is the youngest and the bottom is the oldest.
Law of Cross Cutting
Any feature that cuts across a rock or body of sediment must be younger than the rock or sediment that it cuts across
Law of Inclusions
Pieces of rock found in other layers are always older.