American History Chapters 13-15, Unit 4
Terms in this set (42)
the rights and powers held by individual US states rather than by the federal government.
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. SC Senator
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. .
Senator of Massachusetts; famous American politician & orator; advocated renewal & opposed the financial policy of Jackson; pushed for a strong union.
an American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Ran against Abraham Lincoln for President
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.
dark horse candidate
An unexpected presidential nomination. Polk was one of the first dark horse candidate.
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
California gold rush, 49ers
mass migration to California after the discovery of gold in 1848
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
sectional political party that morally protested slavery, party of A Lincoln
1856 - Charles Sumner (Senator MA) gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him.
John Brown incidents
attack on Harper's Ferry military arsenal
wanted blacks to join fight for freedom
Dred Scott decision
Supreme Court ruling that declared slaves were not viewed as citizens but as property
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
withdraw formally from membership in a federal union, an alliance, or a political or religious organization.
President of the Confederate States of America
First battle of the Civil War, US fort in Charleston, SC harbor
Civil War 1861-1865
bloodiest conflict on U.S. soil, fought between North and South. North won.
causes of civil War
-States' rights, no state can secede from Union
strengths of North
larger population; more railroads; more industry, more food, more weapons production
weakness of the North
strengths of the South
Homefield advantage, military leadership, passion/motivation for the south
weaknesses of the South
-Economy could not support a long war.
-Had few technologies, factories to produce guns and supplies.
-Depended a lot on Europe's help. Needed to send cotton to them.
-Had weak transportation, lacked railroad network to transport.
-Lacked good currency and money.
A tax on imported goods
The selection of citizens for mandatory military service
state on the border between the North and South: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri
Proclamation issued by Lincoln, freeing all slaves in areas still at war with the Union. January 1863
(1863) a speech given by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg, in which he praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War; supported the ideals of self-government and human rights;
probably most famous speech by President ever
A war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
Ulysses S. Grant
General of the Union Army
Brave commander of the Confederate Army that led troops at Bull Run. He died in the confusion at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
union general, 1st commander, overly cautious, fired by Lincoln
William T. Sherman
Northern general whose march to sea caused total destruction to the south, burned Georgia and Atlanta
John Wilkes Booth
Assassinated Abraham Lincoln
(AL), 1862, the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
(AL) 1863 (meade and lee), July 1-3, 1863, turning point in war, Union victory, most deadly battle over 3 days,
Grant's best fought campaign, this siege ended in the seizure of the Mississippi River by the Union
split the Confederacy gave North control of MISS R
The battle here in 1862 was the largest battle ever fought in the state of Kentucky.
GA, burned by Sherman
Appomattox Court House
small town in Virginia where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant ending the Civil War