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4th Quarter S.S. Exam
Terms in this set (103)
Farming in Africa improved around 500 BC because...
People learned how to make iron tools.
Which list of regions is in order from most rainfall to least?
Rain Forest, Savannah, Sahel, Sahara
How were social groups defined in traditional West African cultures?
By family & age-set
In West Africa, what do the different regions running east and west have in common?
They are all warm.
Which of the following best illustrates a similarity between the development of the Ghana and Mali empires?
Both empires lay along the upper Niger River, where fertile soil made food plentiful.
Which two factors contributed most to the survival of early West African villages?
Work and family
Which of the following best explains the usefulness of the practice of silent barter?
Silent barter ensured that trading was peaceful and that locations of mines remained secret.
Recall which East African kingdom that you learned earlier grew rich from trade but eventually collapsed due to factors that include overgrazing & invasion, like Ghana?
Which of the following was not a way Mansa Musa spread Islam and education throughout Mali?
He outlawed all religions except Islam.
Which of the following is a method Sundiata used to gain more power in Mali?
He took power away from local chiefs and leaders, including important religious leaders.
Who were the Almoravids?
Muslims who attacked Ghana and cut off trade routes
Which of the following is the most appropriate response to the statement "Sunni Ali was bad for the empires of western Africa"?
"This is false, because he brought peace and stability to the area."
An epic poem called the __?__ tells the history of Ghana.
The rulers of Ghana banned common people from owning gold __?__.
To help maintain order, __?__ created five provinces within Songhai.
Askia the Great
The __?__ River allowed many people to live in West Africa.
The people of Songhai rebelled against __?__ because he was not a Muslim.
T/F The people of early West African civilizations preserved their history by writing books.
T/F Artists of West Africa carved masks that portrayed the faces of their ancestors.
T/F Morocco wanted to gain control of Songhai's advanced methods of weapon making.
T/F Muhammad Ture was able to take over as ruler of Songhai because he was a Muslim.
T/F Ghana's kings allowed conquered rulers to keep much of their power.
Why did the kingdom of Ghana collapse?
The Almoravids invaded Ghana in the 1060s. They brought herds of animals with them, ruining Ghana's grasslands by overgrazing. Also, internal rebellion in which rebels took over Ghana
What geographical feature presents an obstacle to humans living and traveling in North Africa?
The Sahara Desert, because it is a huge, barren desert. It has high temperatures and few sources of water.
What is one way the kingdom of Ghana used the natural resources available to it?
The kingdom of Ghana had mineral resources, such as gold from the forests. Ghana traded the gold for other items that came from North Africa and the Islamic world. The Niger River could be used for trade, food, water, or transportation. They used iron to make tools and weapons that helped them in farming and battle, they also used salt to keep their food from spoiling.
How did Sundiata improve Mali?
Sundiata built a powerful army, conquered many neighboring kingdoms, took control of gold & salt trade routes, took power away from local chiefs, & took the authority of a mansa. He also introduced the cotton crop to farmers & worked to improve agriculture.
Which of the following correctly shows the order of dynasties in China?
Sui, Tang, Song
Empress Wu ruled China with an iron fist. Those who threatened her power risked death. Yet she was an effective leader and appointed highly skilled officials. Make a prediction: Knowing the history of China before the Tang dynasty, what would likely have happened if Empress Wu had not been a strong leader?
The dynasty would have collapsed and thrown China into another Period of Disunion.
During the Tang dynasty, China's population was about 60 million. During the Song, the farmers of China fed a country of more than 100 million people. Which of the following is the best reason for the dramatic population increase?
Agricultural advances, such as fast-ripening rice and the cultivation of more land, made food plentiful.
What effect did opening the Pacific ports to foreign traders have on China?
It expanded trading, contributing to a strong economy in China.
In what way do Confucianism and Buddhism differ?
Confucianism stresses ethical behavior and Buddhism stresses a spiritual outlook that promises escape from suffering.
Which of the following did the Song dynasty adopt as its official policy?
What does it mean to work in civil service?
To work as a government official
What effect did having a bureaucracy of scholar-officials have on the Song dynasty?
It created stability and an efficient government.
Which leader ruled over the largest empire in world history?
Which of the following best characterizes Genghis Khan's expeditions of conquest?
Bloody attacks in which entire populations of cities and towns were often wiped out
What did Europeans learn from Marco Polo?
China was a highly civilized country.
A northern ruler named Yang Jian unified China in 589, creating the __?__ dynasty.
The Song dynasty produced __?__, perhaps China's greatest female poet.
During the Han dynasty, __?__ became the official state philosophy.
The __?__ was more than 13,000 miles long.
Great Wall of China
In the 1430s, a new Ming emperor began a policy of increased __?__.
T/F During the Period of Disunion, the cultures of northern invaders and traditional Chinese were sometimes combined.
T/F Under the Song, the amount of land used for agriculture decreased.
T/F Before the Han dynasty, Confucius's ideas were widely accepted among the Chinese.
T/F The Chinese and the Mongols belonged to different ethnic groups.
T/F China's relations with other countries did not change very much during the Ming dynasty.
How did the Grand Canal affect trade in China?
Large amounts of goods were carried on the Grand Canal. It allowed the Chinese to move goods from agricultural areas to cities.
What was one invention of the Tang or Song dynasty, and how did it affect China?
The magnetic compass, which helped explorers, traders, and warships navigate more accurately.
Woodblock printing was used so an entire page could be carved into a block of wood.
Gunpowder which was used in guns & explosives.
Discuss how the culture of China changed during of the Period of Disunity.
New types of art, music, food, & clothing styles developed as a result of the mixing of cultures.
What was gunpowder's 1st use?
What was the most important organization in Japan's samurai society?
According to Confucius, which family sequence is in order from MOST power to LEAST?
Father, mother, older brother, younger brother
The samurai period in Japan lasted until the 1800s for all of the following reasons except...
Japanese believed samurai were chosen by gods.
Which of the following is a TRUE statement about life as a samurai?
Samurai could get married.
What did the Yamato rulers govern before they called themselves emperors of Japan?
Who unified Japan in the 1500s?
Japanese nobles put aside their differences and united in 1274 to...
Fight a common enemy, the invading Mongols.
Which of the following events happened after the royal court became a center for art and culture?
Shoguns took control of Japan, creating a military society.
Why was Japan isolated from Korea and China in ancient times?
Japan's island location separated it from other people in Asia.
Which list is in the order of MOST power to LEAST power?
Shogun, daimyo, samurai, peasant
Which of the following is a characteristic of Pure Land Buddhism?
Chanting Buddha's name
How was the Buddhism of the Japanese nobles different from the Buddhism of the common people?
Elaborate rituals were practiced by nobles but not by common people.
During the 1400s, Japan was...
Divided, with many daimyo controlling different territories.
__?__ is the journal of a woman who served Japan's empress from 991 to 1000.
The Pillow Book
Beginning in 1192, the __?__ ruled Japan for about 700 years.
About __?__ percent of Japan consists of flat land.
One of the most powerful clans came from __?__, Japan's largest island.
__?__ became a popular religion among Japan's nobles.
T/F In the 1500s, leaders such as Oda Nobunaga fought to unify Japan.
T/F Only the men in samurai families were expected to live by special rules.
T/F Buddhism became popular in Japan because of the efforts of Lady Murasaki Shikibu
T/F The nobles of Heian traveled often in order to learn about life in different parts of Japan.
T/F If Japan were not an island, its culture would probably be more like Chinese culture.
How would Japan's physical geography affect the development of Japanese government & society?
Because they live on islands, the Japanese were separated from other people of Asia, which allowed them to develop their own government & society.
What made the period between the 800s & 1100s the golden age of the arts in Japan?
The imperial court at Heian was a great supporter of the arts. They created a center of culture & learning that included fashion, literature, visual arts, architecture, performing arts & Buddhism.
What was daily like like for the samurai?
The samurai served their lords & the emperor. They led simple, disciplined lives according to a strict code of laws called Bushido. Samurais learned to fight, as well as perform peaceful tasks that required great concentration, including writing poetry.
Name one of the forms of Buddhism developed in Japan.
Pure Land Buddhism and Zen Buddhism
Which is the best prediction of what might have happened if Maya cities had stopped warring with one another?
Maya civilization might not have collapsed in the 900s.
included large stone pyramids and temples
The popular Maya ball game was similar to today's basketball because both sports...
Are based on getting a ball through a ring.
Which is the best summary of Maya society?
The lower classes provided food and labor and the upper class led religious ceremonies.
What were the key factors in the rise of the Aztec Empire?
War, tribute, and trade
A tribute was
A payment to a more powerful ruler or country
Other than trading their goods, what key role did many merchants perform for the Aztec emperors?
They were spies, alerting the emperors to possible troubles in other regions.
Other Native American tribes made alliances with Cortés because...
They did not like living under the harsh rule of the Aztecs.
What event took place soon before the Spaniards arrived and led to the fall of the Inca Empire?
A civil war
Why was the Inca road system important?
The roads connected all parts of the empire.
Which of the following does not describe Inca buildings?
Inca builders learned their craft from the Spanish conquistadors.
Maya in the highlands traded obsidian and __?__ for forest goods and cotton from the lowlands.
The Aztecs built their capital city on a(n) __?__ in central Mexico.
The Aztec emperor believed that Hernán Cortés was a __?__.
In the mid-1400s, a ruler named __?__ began to expand Inca territory.
The Incas were known for their expert __?__, or stonework.
T/F One way that the Maya reinforced their social structure was by building temples.
T/F The Maya population was evenly divided between the upper and lower classes.
T/F The Aztecs sacrificed as many as 10,000 people a year.
T/F When the conquistadors arrived, the Aztecs immediately attacked them.
T/F The Inca Empire began in what is now Mexico.
How did the Incas preserve their history before they started using a written language?
The Incas kept records with knots tied in cords to represent numbers. They also had a tradition of oral history. Some people memorized poems about Inca legends and history.
What obstacles did the Aztecs overcome in building their capital city?
The Aztecs built their capital on a swampy island in the middle of a lake. It was hard to get to and from the city. Another problem was the lack of good farmland
Compare AND contrast the Maya and Aztec religions.
The Maya and the Aztecs both worshipped many gods. The Maya offered their blood to the gods by piercing their tongues or skin. The Aztecs made human sacrifices.
The Aztecs created floating gardens called __?__.
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