AP GoPo FINAL REVIEW
Terms in this set (160)
The channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda. In the United States, linkage institutions include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
Federalist No. 51
Separation of powers, checks and balances
Powers held jointly by the national and state governments.
Brown v. Board
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
US v. Lopez
Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce.
White House staff
Personnel who run the White House and advise the President. Includes the Chief of Staff and Press Secretary
Regulations to keep laws applicable to changing circumstances. Power granted by Congress.
The U.S. Constitution
A document that embodies the fundamental laws and principles by which the United States is governed.
Roe v. Wade
(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
Baker v. Carr
case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends. (patronage)
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
A procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate.
powers directly stated in the constitution
The process by which provisions of the Bill of Rights are brought within the scope of the Fourteenth Amendment and so applied to state and local governments.
No cruel or unusual punishment
Federalist No. 70
Here Hamilton argues for the necessity of a single president (rather than an executive committee). Hamilton states that Americans should not fear the president becoming a tyrant because a single person would be easier to control. Additionally, a single president could act with more energy, efficiency, and secrecy than could a committee.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Gideon v. Wainwright
A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government
A belief that government can and should achieve justice and equality of opportunity.
Rule of Law
principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
Tinker v. Des Moines
Students have the right to symbolic speech at school as long as it is not disruptive
Funds provided for a specific and clearly defined purpose.
Power used by Congress to gather information useful for the formation of legislation, review the operations and budgets of executive departments and independent regulatory agencies, conduct investigations through committee hearings, and bring to the public's attention the need for public policy
Department of Homeland Security
US federal agency created in 2002 to coordinate national efforts against terrorism
Incumbents have an advantage over challengers in election campaigns because voters are more familiar with them, and incumbents are more recognizable.
Engel v. Vitale
banned formal prayer in schools, government would not make any religion the 'official' religion.
A group of advisers to the president.
a theory of democracy that holds that citizen membership in groups is the key to political power
The residents of a congressional district or state.
A constitutional amendment designed to protect the rights of persons accused of crimes, including protection against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and punishment without due process of law.
Shaw v. Reno
NO racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries; majority-minority districts.
an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins
President Pro Tempore
Officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as chair in the absence of the vice president
Shay Rebellion 1786
Shays' Rebellion was an uprising carried out by farmers in Massachusetts in 1786 and 1787. ... Thus, Shays' Rebellion led rather directly to the writing of the Constitution.
a go-between with the majority leadership and party members in the house of representatives
An elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party's candidate is almost taken for granted.
a party's efforts to inform potential voters about issues and candidates and to persuade them to vote
A large group of people who are organized to promote or resist some social change
A tax on imported goods
the process of reassigning representation based on population, after every census
Difference in political views between men and women
the process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions
Precedent (Stare Decisis)
a legal norm established in court cases that is then applied to future cases dealing with the same legal questions
the distribution of the population's beliefs about politics and policy issues
An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy
McDonald v. Chicago
Incorporated the 2nd Amendment right to bear arms to the states
The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census, to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population.
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery & consisted of Whigs, N. Democrats, & Free-Soilers in defiance to the Slave Powers
Expenses on behalf of a political message that are made by groups that are uncoordinated with any candidate's campaign.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Third (minor) Parties
electoral contenders other than the two major parties. American third parties are not unusual, but they rarely win elections.
A legislator who acts according to her or his conscience and the broad interests of the entire society.
The process by which individuals screen out messages that do not conform to their own biases.
Right to bear arms
The loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas
The Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote
the current officeholder
Elections held midway between presidential elections.
persuader of legislators
speech that directly incites damaging conduct
meetings where political parties choose their candidates
legally prescribed limits on the number of terms an elected official can serve
A mutually dependent relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees. They dominate some areas of domestic policy making.
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
An official document, published every weekday, which lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies.
A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
process in which voters select candidates by their party affiliation
a campaign in which an individual seeking election, rather than an entire party slate, is the focus
Commander in Chief
term for the president as commander of the nation's armed forces
Single member district
An electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official.
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
one party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress
The Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Speaker of the House
An office mandated by the Constitution. The Speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant.
Wisconsin v. Yoder
Amish children do not have to go to school until they are 16---they may stop after the 8th grade
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
Letters written by MLK encouraging non-violent protest against segregation.
A rule issued by the president that has the force of law
people who opposed the Constitution
Schenck v. United States
A 1919 decision upholding the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during World War I. Justice Holmes declared that government can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
A political party formed by supporters of Andrew Jackson after the presidential election of 1824. "Liberal" today
New York Times Company v. US
Use of first Amendment to strike down President Nixon's request to prevent the NY Times from publishing classified info on US involvement in Vietnam
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
news coverage that focuses on who is ahead rather than on the issues
Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)
Clear and Present Danger Doctrine
judicial interpretation of Amendment 1 that government may not ban speech unless such speech poses an imminent threat to society.
Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures
Amicus Curiae Brief (Friend of the Court Brief)
a legal brief, filed by an individual or a group that is not a party in the case, written to influence the Court's decision
improperly gathered evidence may not be introduced in a criminal trial
"Father of the Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States.
A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences.
An order to produce an arrested person before a judge.
A political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes.
Pork barrel legislation
legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return
Writ of Certiorari
A formal writ used to bring a case before the Supreme Court.
Right to a speedy trial
Necessary and Proper Clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
A requirement the federal government imposes as a condition for receiving federal funds.
Federal Appeals Court
Hear appeals from the district courts and from federal administration agencies; decided by a panel of 3 judges. there are a total of 13. They do not have jury trials.
Petition that, if signed by majority of the House of Representatives' members, will pry a bill from committee and bring it to the floor for consideration.
The Civil Rights Act of
1964; banned discrimination in public accomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
a legislator supports a proposal favored by another in return for support of his or hers
The boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president.
Limits the president to two terms.
American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.
following established legal procedures
Right to jury in civil trials.
a person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
Free Exercise Clause
A First Amendment provision that prohibits government from interfering with the practice of religion.
A meeting of party delegates to vote on matters of policy and in some cases to select party candidates for public office.
The people's liberties. One of the main objections to the Constitution argued by Brutus is the immense power of the federal government which requires the people to sacrifice their liberties. Like other Anti-Federalist writers, he argued that a bill of rights was necessary to protect the people from the government
Presidential appointment made without Senate confirmation during Senate recess
Article III of the Constitution
creates the Supreme Court but allows Congress to establish lower courts.
A formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office
Presidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work.
A principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution.
The powers of the national government in foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government.
Congressional committee hearings
give Congress a way of reducing the number of bills introduced each session to a manageable number
State of the Union Address
The president's annual statement to Congress and the nation.
occasional written comments attached to a bill signed by the president
Rule of four
At least four justices of the Supreme Court must vote to consider a case before it can be heard
A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator refuses to relinquish the floor and thereby delays proceedings and prevents a vote on a controversial issue.
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling taxing and spending.
Presidential Chief of Staff
supervise white house staff
Money given to states for general programs within a broad category
Federalist No. 10
An essay composed by James Madison which argues that liberty is safest in a large republic because many interests (factions) exist. Such diversity makes tyranny by the majority more difficult since ruling coalitions will always be unstable.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
senate approval of judicial appointments
Power of a government to take private property for public use.
A primary in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
Title IX of the Education Amendments Act
Prohibits government money from being used for anything that discriminates on the basis of gender.
A statement written by a justice who disagrees with the majority opinion, presenting his or her opinion
A veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
A provision attached to a bill - to which it may or may not be related - in order to secure its passage or defeat.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
A 2010 landmark Supreme Court case that ruled that individuals, corporations, and unions could donate unlimited amounts of money to groups that make independent political expenditures.
A formal agreement between two or more sovereign states
A presidential appointee and the third-ranking office in the Department of Justice. The solicitor general is in charge of the appellate court litigation of the federal government.
A standing committee of the House of Representatives that provides special rules under which specific bills can be debated, amended, and considered by the house.
a candidate's identifiable membership in a political party, often listed on an election ballot.
Committee appointed by the presiding officers of each chamber to adjust differences on a particular bill passed by each in different form.
Checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
The Voting Rights Act of
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it brought jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
laws requiring that voters show government made ID at polls, done by Republicans to decrease voter fraud but also deters lots of Democrats from voting because elderly and poor are less likely to get a good enough ID
The Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
Federalist No. 78
written by Alexander Hamilton; talks about the federal judiciary; judiciary must depend on other two branches to uphold its decisions
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.
Spending determined by the number of qualified recipients and their legally determined need
Powers given to the national government alone
Gross Domestic Product- the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually in an economy
The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
A philosophy that encourages individual nations tacked together to solve international problems.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
federal program of disability and retirement benefits that covers most working people
An excess of federal expenditures over federal revenues.
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
A primary election in which voters may choose in which party to vote as they enter the polling place
Full Faith And Credit Clause
Section of Article IV of the Constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state.
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