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ASCI 100 Final
Terms in this set (313)
What is the most common cause of food-borne illness?
What state is ranked number 1 in milk production?
Which of the following is a typical characteristic of a "farm flock?"
Using home-raised feedstuffs to produce finished 120-140 lb black-faced market lambs
What affect does increased lighting duration and intensity have on egg production of mature layers?
increased lighting should improve egg production rates
what organism is of major concern to the beef industry due to its potential presence in ground beef?
E. Coli O157:H7
In what portion of the egg is the cholesterol located?
Which of the following countries has the greatest production of lamb and mutton?
On average, feed represents approximately what percentage of the total cost of production during the grow/finish stage of production?
What is it called when milk is heated to 161 degrees F for 15 seconds to kill any pathogenic bacteria that may be present?
Of the weights listed, what would be the most typical market weight for a wether?
What term is used to describe the situation when a lactating dairy cow is unable to meet its nutrient requirements (primarily energy) through daily consumption of feed? As a result, this cow will typically lose body weight and condition. This typically occurs during early lactation, or during the freshening period.
Negative Energy Balance
What bacterial organism can grow at refrigerated temperatures?
Traditionally, the swine industry in the U.S. has been concentrated in what geographic area of the country?
In general, what determines "milk grade" (A vs B)?
Type of dairy facilities and general sanitation of those facilities
Which of the following is NOT part of the USDA inspection process?
inspection of byproducts such as leather
Which of the following is/are true regarding HACCP?
It is a systematic approach used to identify, evaluate, and PREVENT safety hazards
What country rates #1 in swine production?
In general, how does the diameter of fineness of wool relate to wool quality?
The finer the wool diameter, the higher the quality for it will generate more yarn; softer yarn
Let's imagine that fed cattle prices are extremely high. As a result, a producer decides to expand the cow herd to take advantage of those high prices. If the additional replacement heifers are bred today, when can you expect their first offspring to be ready for market (weighing approximately 1300 lbs) as fed cattle?
In approximately 2 years
What is the average dressing percent for a typical market-ready feedlot steer that will weigh 1350 lbs produce an 850 lb carcass?
What is the major segments of the poultry industry represents nearly 2/3 of the total value of the poultry industry in the U.S.?
Who is responsible for maintaining food safety?
All of the above
Imported into the U.S. in 1828, what breed of chicken became the most important egg-producing breed of chicken in the U.S. Even today, most laying chickens originate from the crossing of inbred lines of chickens within this breed.
What production factor is most important to the commercial cow-calf producer ?
the ability to produce a single offspring every 365 days
A feeder pig that is approximately 8 weeks of age should weigh approximately how much?
what is the average milk production level of an "average" dairy cow, today, for a standard lactational period?
what is the primary ENERGY source of a swine diet?
What dairy product is least likely to be traded in significant amounts on the world market?
Which of the following organisms will be killed when the temperature exceeds 160 degrees F?
All of the above
During the feedlot phase of beef production, what is a reasonable target goal for average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion rate (lbs of dry matter feed required per lb of gain) in a market beef animal?
4 lbs/day ADG and 6:1 feed conversion rate (6 lbs of feed required for every 1 lb of gain)
Why is molting important for layer production?
It provides a period of rest and rejuvenation and ovarian function
Which of the following species is most efficient in the conversion of feed to gain?
At what temperature would you expect bacteria to exponentially multiply?
78 degrees F
Which livestock industry's current structure provides for the most difficult coordination of industry components? In other words, which industry's current structure results in the greatest potential loss of communication from consumers to those who can implement genetic change? We conducted an in-class activity to illustrate this.
On average, what is the goal for the number of pigs weaned from the average sow from a single farrowing?
Which of the following official USDA quality grades of beef should result in the greatest eating satisfaction, on average?
What is a female swine who has never given birth to a litter of pigs termed?
In what region of the U.S. did the commercial broiler industry originate?
Delmarva-- Delaware, Maryland, Virginia
Ideally, a finished market barrow should typically be harvested (marketed) at what weight and age?
280 lbs; 160 days of age
Which of the following statements most accurately reflects trends in egg consumption by Americans from approximately 1940 through today?
Although processed egg consumption has increased slightly, shell and total egg consumption has decreased
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding changes in the number, size, and/or scope of livestock operations in Nebraska? Be sure to read each statement thoroughly and carefully. If any part of the statement is false, it is false.
As farmers and ranchers strive to offset capital investments, operational size and specialization has increased while those involved in production agriculture has decreased
Which grade of egg would most likely have the SMALLEST air cell?
What organism is of major concern when meat is thawed at room temperature for an extended period of time assuming the meat will eventually be properly cooked
Staphylococcus aureus-- although it is heat labile, it produces a toxin
what component of the beef industry feeds a high percentage of grains and/or grain by-products? The diet of most cattle within this segment of the industry is 80-90%?
Which of the following provides an economic or competitive advantage for vertically integrated companies in the poultry or swine industries?
All of the above
In the U.S. how is the majority (>90%) of raw milk marketed?
Most producers sell milk through producer-owned cooperative milk marketing associations
Which of the following best describes a stockering operation?
Graze weaned calves on forage for 100 to 200 days to produce 800-900 lb feeders
Which of the following was the major contributor to "birth" of vertical integration in the poultry industry?
As profit margins decreased and flock sizes increased, producers requested extensions of credit from feed suppliers
Which of the following contributed to the decline of the sheep industry in the U.S.?
All of the above
Which of the following methods provides the BEST determination of doneness when cooking meat products?
Measurement of internal temperature
looking into the future 20 years, which of the following states is likely to see the greatest growth in the swine industry?
Oklahoma, because of the open spaces & legal receptivity to large, corporate swine operations
In what region of the country does broiler production predominate?
To ensure food safety ground beef must be cooked to what minimal internal temperature?
160 degrees F
Which of the following is NOT a recommended production practice if one wishes to maximize biosecurity and reduce potential disease transmissions?
Continuous flow production systems
What defines the dry period in dairy production?
The cow is not lactating
Within the beef industry, which segment or facet of production provides the genetic base for change needed to meet consumer demands for a more tender product?
What is the most expensive and troublesome disease in dairy cow management?
How long is the standard lactation period for the dairy cow?
Which of the following is/are true regarding farmer-feeders in the beef industry?
Farmer feeders raise their own feed and feed out their own calves
which breed of dairy cow, on average, produces the highest yield (lbs) of milk? the breed is also the most prevalent breed in the dairy industry.
Linseed meal should be classified as what type of feedstuff?
What nutrient is a major cell component, facilitates lubrication of joints and transportation of medium throughout the body, and is a significant component of all chemical reactions taking place (metabolism) within the body?
In the future, where is the greatest increase in demand for animal products expected to come from?
In what organ of the equine digestive system does microbial fermentation of forage occur?
What is the first-limiting amino acid for humans, swine, and horses?
Which of the four compartments of the ruminant stomach is known as the "honeycomb" and will force the "cud" back up into the cow's mouth?
What does TDN estimate?
TDN provides an estimate of the total energy present within a feedstuff
What is the only class of nutrient that contains nitrogen?
Which of the following is NOT a general function of minerals in the body?
Involved in antibody synthesis and immune function
What is the process of breaking down feed into simpler substances called?
Which of the following animals will have the greatest nutritional requirements?
a 1200 lb cow in early lactation nursing a 200 lb calf
Which of the following nutrient analyses would be characteristic of an "ENERGY" feed?
4% crude fiber, 90% TDN, 9% CP
From what species of animals do mohair and cashmere originate?
what nutrient dietarily comprises the greatest percentage of a balanced livestock feeder?
Which of the following digestive organs is considered the "true" or glandular stomach of the CHICKEN where there is secretion of gastric juices and chemical digestion occurs?
Where does the process of mastication occur in horses?
What is the major complex carbohydrate found in forages?
If a 1400-lb, lactating dairy cow is expected to consume 56 lbs of dry matter daily. how much of a 60% dry matter, ration will she consume, as-fed?
What is the primary function of the gizzard in the poultry digestive tract?
A physical grinding of feed into smaller pieces
Which of the following is NOT a function of the stomach?
The stomach serves as the primary site of nutrient absorption
Which of the following represents a function of protein in the body?
All of the above represent functions of protein in the body
How does the energy content of fat compare to the energy content of carbohydrate?
Fat has approximately 2.25 times more energy than carbohydrate
For cows being fed a high fiber diet, what primary energy source is absorbed across the ruminal wall?
Volative fatty acids
When reading a feed label, what percentage of dry matter is assumed?
90% dry matter
If haylage (60% dry matter) is 12% crude protein on an as-fed basis, what is the crude protein value of haylage on a dry matter basis?
In general, voluntary consumption and utilization of forage increases as
the ADF and NDF decrease
Nutrient information may be expressed commonly on an "as-fed" or "dry matter" basis. Which of the following statement(s) is/are true regarding these two different methods of expression?
The quantity of nutrients in teh feed is the same, regardless of expression
From lab. Why can you see forage particles in the feces of a horse, but not a cow?
Horses are hindgut fermenters and minimal absorption occurs in the distal portion of the digestive tract.
Which of the following sources of energy for the ruminant animal are absorbed directly across the ruminal wall?
Volatile fatty acids
What is the primary function of the rumen?
What is the first step of analyzing a feed for nutrient content?
Collection of a representative sample
Throughout the world, how is animal manure used for the benefit of human welfare?
All of the above
Which of the following would be considered water-soluble vitamins?
B1, B2, B6, and B12
What is the nearly 150-year old process of separating feedstuffs into their constituent components to assess feeding value termed? still, today, it's the most commonly used method.
world-wide, what is the FASTEST GROWING source of animal protein (meat) supplies?
How much corn (10% CP) and soybean meal (50% CP) must you mix to produce 100 lbs of a 24% CP feed?
65 lbs corn; 35 lbs soybean meal
What class of nutrients is associated with the ash content of a feedstuff that remains after placing a sub-sample in a muffle oven and heating ti to approximately 600 degrees C.
What projections of ruminal lining function to increase the surface area of the rumen for more effective absorption of Acetate and Propionate across the ruminal wall?
How do the teeth of carnivores (cats & dogs) compare to the teeth found in herbivores (grazing animals)?
The carnivore has large carnassial or third premolar teeth that act like a scissors to slice flesh
What is the major site of amino acid (protein) absorption in the ruminant animal?
Americans spend approximately what percentage of our disposable income on food?
What segment of the small intestine functions as the primary site of nutrient absorption for the body, regardless of species? Second section of the small intestine
Nutritionally, what additional amino acids are required by poultry or avian species that is not required by other domestic animals discussed in class
Glycine & Proline
How do protein requirements, expressed as a percentage of dry matter intake, change as an animal grows?
The protein requirement decreases as the animal grows
From lab. THINK and RECALL. For research and teaching purposes, where is the rumen fistula located on the cow that provides direct access to the rumen
It is located on the left side o the animal, just behind the last rib
What are volatile fatty acids?
All of the above
Which of the following feed ingredients would likely provide the most energy to a diet?
What is the typical relationship that exists between economic status and the consumption of food animal products?
As economic status improves, people usually consume more food animal products
What compartment of the ruminant stomach has many folds that look like "pages in a book" (the Stockman's bible) and functions to resorb water?
What is the passage of small molecules (glucose, amino acids, etc) from the gastrointestinal tract to the blood &/or lymphatic system for transport to the cell termed?
What term represents the sum of all physical and chemical processes that occur within a biological system?
What mechanism allows silages to be preserved and stored for long periods of time?
Anaerobic (in the presence of oxygen) fermentation
If a feed was analyzed to contain 8% nitrogen, how much protein does it have?
What digestive organ of the ruminant animal is considered the "true stomach" because there is a release of HCl and other gastric juices?
Which of the following would be classified as macro-minerals?
As a rule of thumb, unstressed animal will consume approximately how much water daily?
1 gallon per 100 lbs of body weight
what meat product represents the greatest percentage of world animal protein supplies in the world?
Which of the following is a primary digestive function of the small intestine?
Enzymatic digestion of protein and carbohydrates
What is the primary site of glucose absorption in the horse?
What term best describes a genetically altered organism where the DNA of one organism was transferred from and spliced into the DNA of another organism?
Which is an example of a qualitative trait?
Red hair color of a Red Angus heifer
What term defines the average age of all parents in the herd when the offspring are born?
Which of the following is/are example of the usage of biotechnology?
All of the above
Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding accuracy value?
A change in accuracy represents a change in gene frequency or genetic ability of the sire
When an animal is heterozygous, they possess alternate forms of a gene, what term is given to those alternate forms that may be dominant or recessive for the trait in question
What are the main benefits of crossbreeding?
breed complementation and hybrid vigor
Because of differences in generation intervals, in what species would you expect to make the fastest rate of genetic change through proper selection? Clue- Shorter generation intervals equate to faster overall genetic progress
What general type of traits will typically show the greatest productive benefit associated with heterosis or hybrid vigor because of crossbreeding?
Reproductive traits which are lowly heritable
In horses, Gene E (extension) controls the presence of black hair color on a horse, but the Agouti gene control distribution (where it is located on the horse) of black hair color. What is this interaction among genes at different loci termed?
Which of the following statement(s) is/are true regarding EPDs?
All of the above statements are true
Which of the following statement(s) is/are true regarding QUALITATIVE traits?
All of the above
Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding QUANTITATIVE traits?
Quantitative traits are minimally affected by the environment
Which of the following is a tool of genetic selection that weighs several traits according to their economic importance and provides one numerical number (where the average animal = 100) for comparison purposes?
What causes the roan color pattern (mixture of red and white hair) commonly expressed in Shorthorn cattle?
Although reproductive traits are considered to be lowly heritable, improvement can be made through selection if the proper conditions exist. For which of the following herds would you expect to make the greatest improvement in litter size through selection. Clue: which herd's tail of a normal distribution will be the farthest removed from the mean?
Herd C: Mean litter size= 12 pigs/litter; standard deviation= 4 pigs
What term represents the percentage of phenotypic variation that is genetic and may be transmitted from parents to progeny?
A zoo plans to mate two heterozygous yellow tigers in hopes of generating a white tiger kitten. Yellow hair color is dominant in tigers and white hair color is recessive. Additionally, hair color is controlled by a single gene pair. What are the odds this mating will produce a white tiger?
Which of the following breeding programs would you expect to show the greatest amount of heterosis?
2-breed cross (the crossing of two purebred animals to generate an F1)
What is the active area of a chromosome that codes for a trait and determines how that trait will help develop?
Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding the PHENOTYPE of an animal?
Phenotype is determined only by the genetic makeup of the animal
mask or hide the effect of other genes called recessive genes
what type of breeding program is most commonly used by commercial livestock producers?
What term represents an animal's own genetic superiority or inferiority relative to the herd or population on average?
If the "White" and "Black" alleles were incompletely dominant, what color pattern would arise from a WB genotype?
Which of the following would most likely represent the heritability of calving interval for beef cattle? Clue: Calving interval is a reproductive trait
What hormone stimulates contraction of the myoepethelial cells to facilitate milk release or "milk letdown" from the mammary system?
Ovulation is caused by a rapid release of what hormone?
How does the uterine shape of the mare compare to the uterine shape of the gilt (or other litter bearing animals)?
The marge has a large uterine body with minute horns; the gilt has a minute body with long, slender horns
If artificial insemination is used, where does FERTILIZATION take place in the mammalian female?
In the Oviduct
What female organ protects the uterus from contamination by the external environment?
What is the inflammation of the mammary gland, most often caused by bacterial infection?
From what OVARIAN STRUCTURE of the mammal is the egg released during ovulation?
What hormone released from the anterior pituitary stimulates follicular growth and development?
What hormone stimulates "milk let-down?"
Which of the following terms represents the period of time when the otherwise productive female is NOT in estrus; the naturally non-breeding season?
What structure of the avian reproductive tract adds the thick albumen (egg white) to the egg?
What type of estrous cycle is exhibited by the dog?
From ovulation to ovulation or from "heat to heat", how long is the typical estrous period for a majority of our farm animal species including the cow, mare, and sow?
What is the structure that remains and develops after lysing the follicle?This structure will then remain intact throughout the pregnancy functioning to secrete progesterone in order to maintain the pregnancy.
Historically, your mare commonly shows estrus for 5 days. Assuming that she ovulates on a normal schedule, on what day should she be bred. You're using artificial insemination, and you have only one opportunity to get her bred so you need to be as close to the time of ovulation as possible.
The CL secretes what hormone responsible for maintaining pregnancy?
Why is it important that newborn mammals receive colostrum within the first few hours of birth?
All of the above
What structure of the avian reproductive tract functions to receive the mature ova?
What is the single milk-producing unit of the mammary gland?
Which of the following animal(s) is consider to be a short-day breeder and reproductively responds to a decrease in daylength?
Which of the following animals exhibit estrus only after weaning when the suckling stimulus has been removed?
In what organ of the male reproductive system is sperm stored, concentrated, and allowed to mature?
What hormone functions to cause regression of the corpus luteum thereby allowing the female to return to estrus in the event that fertilization did not occur?
What is libido?
The desire o the male to locate receptive females
What is the ovarian structure that secretes estrogen?
What hormone is responsible for secondary sex characteristics and behavior in females?
This morning prior to the exam, you were out at the ranch and observed a cow in heat. If you plan to artificially inseminate the cow, when should she breed?
this evening, ovulation will occur approximately 12 hours after you initially saw her in estrus
The primary advantage of this practice is that it allows for the production of many more offspring from genetically superior FEMALES.
Which of the following provides the best indication that a cow is currently in estrus?
The cow will stand to be mounted by another cow
What "reduction" process is associated with sex cell development so that the egg and sperm contain only one-half of the genetic message?
In order for a cow to produce a calf at approximately the same time each year, a cow must be rebred within approximately how many days of calving?
What hormone is secreted by the fetus to initiate parturition?
At what temperature does the male biologically strive to maintain temperature of the sperm for maximal survivability?
4 to 6 degrees F below body temperature
What is the normal incubation period of the chicken?
During what season(s) of the year will the horse naturally initiate signs of estrus?
During the spring due to an increase in day length
Within the body there are four primary deposits of fat, which of those depots of fat is the LAST to be deposited?
Intramuscular Fat (also known as marbling)
If a large and small-framed animal were both fed to teh same WEIGHT, which would likely be the more efficient throughout the feeding period to that weight?
The large-framed animal because he will be depositing a greater percentage of muscle when he reaches that weight
The terms "growth" and "development" are often used in conjunction with one another, but there is a difference. Which of the following best defines development?
A change in body composition
In what species is the female actually leaner and heavier muscled than its neutered male counterpart?
Swine- the gilt is leaner & heavier muscled than the barrow
White that covers only the pastern and fetlock of a horse's leg is known as what?
Why are white horses a rarity? Most horses that appear "white" are actually grey.
the "WW" genotype of lethal and most "white" horses die in utero or shortly after birth
This draft breed of horse is commonly associated with exhibition due to it's connection with a particular beverage company
This darker colored draft horse breed is one of the most popular, based upon breed registry numbers
Most registered horses in Nebraska (and across the country) are of what breed?
What part of a horse's hoof functions to absorb shock, provide traction, and "pump blood" from the horses extremities?
A farrier is someone who is trained in proper trimming and shoeing techniques of horses
which of the following represents a diagonal two-beat gate where the diagonal feet strike the ground in unison
What type of vision allows a horse to see two different scenes simultaneously?
Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding training techniques?
Only positive reinforcement should be used to train horses
In the event of cutting, once an animal has been "cut" from the herd, the horse is expected to perform "unassisted" and will be penalized if the rider sends cues to the horse on hwere and how to move.
In what English equine event are the movements and mannerisms of the horse judged with intent to depict a horse "on the hunt chasing the hounds?"
hunter under saddle
which of the following has been associated with the major growth of the equine industry?
Pleasure- the "backyard" horse
What is the base score an individual run when judging cutting and reining events?
Who was the LAST horse to win the triple crown?
In what division of the "Saddle Seat Pleasure" event, does the rider attempt to "show off" his success with the horse showing extreme action with an upheaded horse and tail and tail flagging?
What is considered to be the universal birth date for a horse?
What is the chronological order of primary horse utilization by man throughout history?
first used as food animal, then as a work animal, and today primarily as a recreational animal
The homozygous recessive genotype for the extension gene would normally result in a Sorrel colored horse. However, if the "cream" gene were also present, what color would result?
Which of the following is most representative of the height and weight of "light horses?"
15 hands, 1100 lbs
Miniature horses are less than 8 hands tall
This draft breed of horse is commonly used by the Amish, and it is among the most popular of the draft breeds based on registry numbers
This term represents the "nature of movement" in a horse
According to the video that described differences between "trotters" and "pacers", which is the more difficult to handle?
Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding the senses of a horse?
A horse's sense of hearing is poorly developed
Which of the following is NOT part of the "3-Day eventing" compeition
Hunter under saddle
In stadium or show jumping, knocking down an obstacle, refusing to complete a jump, falling at an obstacle, or failing to finish the course in the alloted time are all officially known as what?
In rodeo roughstock events (bareback, and saddle bronc riding) what percentage of the competitor's scores is associated with the horse?
Approximately how long are most long-distance, flat races such as the Kentucky Derby?
1 to 1.5 miles
Which country has the largest number of horses at just over 10 million?
What statement best describes the economic impact of the equine industry?
It is a multi-billion dollar industry that indirectly generates more than 1million full-time jobs
White on the leg that extends from the hoof to the knee or hock is termed as what?
Which of the following horses considers itself the "Premier Show Horse." it's also considered to be a 5-gaited horse being able to perform the walk, trot, canter, slow-gait, and rack
During the summer, horses should be trimmed or shod how often?
Every 6-8 weeks
Which of the following is not a goal of trimming and/or shoeing a horse?
easier to ride
Green-broke is when training has been finished and the horse has been completely broke or trained, probably has had a saddle on and been ridden some, needs no more work.
In what equestrian event (English or Western), are horses judged on their ability to maneuver through various obstacles such as opening, passing thorugh and closing a gate, riding over at least 4 logs, and backing?
What western equine competition is possible because of an animal's natural behavioral instinct to rejoin the group when separated?
Approximately what percentage of all horses in the U.S. are associated with non-competitive, recreational uses?
For what disease(s) are dogs required to be vaccinated?
which of the following is not an internal parasite common to companion animals?
Which parasite is spread through the bite of an infected mosquito?
In the United States this association keeps the registry for breeds of cats and promotes cat shows.
Cat Fancier's Association
All commercial pet foods are required to be nutritionally complete and balanced. Balanced means all the nutrients that are required by the animal to meets its daily needs are included in adequate amounts; complete means that the nutrients are provided in proper proportion to each other.
If a bag of dry dog food is titled "Beef dog food", what minimum percentage of the dog food must originate from beef?
What do you call an animal that must consume meat or high protein as a part of their diet?
What organization functions to promote the advancement of purebred cats?
Cat Fancier's Association
What is the impact of pet ownership on human health?
Because humans remain more active, pet owners commonly have lowered blood pressure and increased longevity.
Which of the following is a clinical behavioral sign of an EXTERNAL parasite infestation on your cat or dog?
Excessive chewing or licking of the haircoat
Canned foods tend to be more expensive and need to be fed in higher amounts each day
According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a service dog is defined as one that has been specifically trained to do work or perform tasks that benefit a dog with a disabiltiy
What is the largest proportion of the global companion animal industry sales?
Studies suggest that interacting with companion animals helps to decrease blood pressure, improve body's ability to handle stress, and what else?
Improve survival rates after a heart attack
Why were rabbits originally domesticated?
The key difference between companion animals and livestock is that the companion animal's primary role is to provide companionship or comfort to humans rather than provide a product?
Which country has the highest rate of pet ownership, and also has the highest expenditures on their companion animals each year.
Which of the following terms refers to a pet whose owner permits the animal to run at large?
What is one way to decrease the chance of mammary cancer in female animals?
Animal assisted therapy means that the dog is doing what?
Assisting a therapist in working with their patient
For dog and cats, who sets the guidelines for concentrations of each nutrietn that should be present in dog or cat food?
Which is not an advantage of feeding your animal canned foods?
What is one way to decrease marking or "urine spraying" in animals?
What is one of the most phenotypically diverse species of animals?
The "Nutritional Adequacy Statement" provides what?
guarantee that the pet food is complete and balanced for the animal it is intended
A cat food titled "seafood entree for cats"; what minimum percentage of the cat food must originate from seafood?
The cat was first domesticated in Egypt from the _______ about 4,000 years ago
What is the impact of pet ownership on human health?
If companion animals are NOT to be used specifically for breeding purposes, why is it recommended they be spayed/ neutered?
All of the above
First animal to be domesticated approximately 10,000 years ago?
Cats were originally bred for:
Which of the following households is LEAST likely to have pet?
the elderly dependent upon social security and living alone
The principal display panel must include what three items?
name, purpose, and net weight of product
Coronary band (coronet)
Boundary between the top of the hoof wall and the skin at the bottom of the pastern where hoof growth begins
Nutritional ailment resulting from overeating. Lameness in front feet with excessive hoof growth usually occurs
Forward movement of a horse. The three natural gaits for most horses include the walk, trot, and canter or gallop. Some breeds have additional or different gaits such as the pace, foxtrot, running walk, rack, and others
a three-beat gait in which each of the two front feet and both of the hind feet strike the ground at different times
One hand equals 4 inches. Horses are measured for height at the withers in hand
Stallion X Jenney (sterile)
Jennet or Jenney
1) female who has never given birth 2) a horse race for horses who have never raced before
In horses, a rapid four-beat gait of a horse
A competition in which a horse and rider perform a specified pattern of advanced maneuvers. These include long, sliding stops, spins (up to four 360 turn-around at high speeds), rollbacks (180o turns after a slidign stop), and circles of different sizes.
A western event in which the manners and movement of the horse are judged. A good western pleasure horse is quiet, responsive, and gives a very smooth ride
Overos and Tobianos are associated with what type or breed registry of horses?
Which of the following is a rythmic 3-beat gait?
When a rider uses his spurs to get a horse to move, but then stops once the horse moves as desired; what type of reinforcement is being utilized?
What type of vision allows a horse to see two different scenes simultaneously?
From an economic standpoint, which of the following is not a major component of the equine industry?
Using for food/ and Western Pleasure
Which breed of horse is LEAST likely to be used in a "Saddle Seat Pleasure" event?
What term best describes a long distance, flat race typically run on an established oval track that involves the jumping of hedge and water obstacles?
What are the three elements judged in the "Working Cow Horse" competition?
Cutting, Reigning,Fence Work
If a horse is said to stand 15 hands tall, how many inches tall is that horse
Which of the following is considered a "diluter" gene in regards to equine hair color?
What two animals are crossed to produce a mule?
Jack and Mare
Which of the following is considered a "4-beat" gait with a period of suspension?
What term describes a horse that possesses a reddish colored body with a black mane and tail
What type of reinforcement is associated with training a horse to "neck rein?"
concern for an animal's treatment and well-beign while it is being used to provide for human needs. humane use of animals
the study of animal behavior in animal's natural environment
the gradual adaptation to a stimulus or to the environment
the sum of the changes an animal makes in response to environmental stimuli
measurement of illness; morbidity rate is the number of individuals in a group that become ill during a specific time
death. the mortality rate is the number of individuals who die from a disease during a specific time, usually a year
characteristic behavior or mode of response. long-term temperament for an individual generaly stablizes after the animal reaches sexual maturity
Which English event has the multiple variations/divisons such as classic, english, contry, and park?
Saddle Seat Pleasure
What was the oriwhginal purpose of dressage?
What is western pleasure?
Judged on a horse's ability to be a pleasure to ride; broke and quiet, soft and smooth, responsive to cues. Travel perimeter of arena performing a walk, trot, lope. Multiple contestants work the ring
What are some events in today's rodeo
Tie down roping, team roping, steer wrestling, barrel racing, chuckwagon races
What are the three types of horse racing?
Flat, steeplechase, harness racing
Who was the 1973 triple crown winner?
What horses are used for harness racing?
What are the three facets of the modern equine industry?
Breeding, Training, Utilization
What are the results of diluter genes in sorrels, bays, blacks and reds concerning horses?
Cream gene: dilutes red: Sorrel--> palomino. Bay-->Buckskin
Dun Gene: dilutes body color: black-->grullo. Red-->red dun
Tabiano vs Overo Paint
Tabiano: (dominant) white crosses over back; "smoother"
Overo: "jagged" white spots; tend to not cross over back
small patch of white on forehead
narrow band of white, forehead to muzzle
Small patch of white on muzzle
White, wide stripe down face
significant white on face
Coronet leg marking
thin white band just above hoof
Pastern leg marking
white covering pastern but not fetlock
white covering pastern and fetlock
White from hoof 1/2 way to knee/hock
white from hoof to knee/hock
What horse breed is considered a premier show horse?
What is the stride of a horse?
repeated linear foot placement pattern
What is the mother of all gaits?
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