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DNA, Reproduction, Genetics, and Variation
Terms in this set (61)
the trait is seen a majority of the time, the dominant allele overpowers the recessive allele and is expressed
the study of inheritance
the combination of alleles that an individual has for a certain gene (example BB, Bb, bb)
father of genetics, Austrian monk, studied pea plants
an organism has two different alleles for a certain gene (Aa)
when an organism has two of the same alleles for a specific gene (AA or aa)
How many pea plant traits did Gregor Mendel study?
Seven traits were studied: seed form, seed color, flower color, pod color, pod form, stem placement, size (tall or short)
In peas, purple flowers P are dominant over white flowers p. If a pp plant is crossed with a Pp plant, what ratio of plants in the offspring would you predict?
pp X Pp
50% = Pp, 50% pp
so 50% purple, and 50% would be white!
In peas, yellow seeds Y are dominant over green seeds y. If a yy plant is crossed with a YY plant what ratio of plants in the offspring would you predict?
yy x YY
100% have yellow seeds
a way to describe the traits you can see, expressed from the genotype, it is the physical appearance/characteristics of the organism that is seen
"many genes" control the inheritance of the traits such as height, skin color, hair color and eye color
the likelihood that a particular event will occur
a special tool used to predict the offspring from a cross or mating between two parents
the trait that is masked by the dominant allele
sex linked disorder
a genetic disorder or disease that is inherited on the X or Y chromosome that determines gender; Colorblindness, Hemophilia, Fragile X syndrome
Two heterozygous guinea pigs mate and have a litter. S stands for solid color and s stands for spots. What ratio of guinea pigs in the offspring would you predict?
Ss x Ss
25% SS, 50% Ss, 25% ss
75% have solid coloring and 25% have spots
What did Mendel not understand during his studying of genetic inheritance?
Mendel was unaware of genes or DNA, both were not discovered until much later!!!
What did Mendel refer to as "factors"?
Factors are really the genes that control and code for a trait.
Why did Mendel choose to work with pea plants?
They have easily identifiable traits, grow quickly, and were readily available to study in the garden at the monastery.
Base Pairing rules for DNA
Adenine pairs with Thymine. Thymine pairs up with Adenine. Cytosine pairs up with Guanine. Guanine pairs up with Cytosine
Using the base-pairing rules of DNA create the other side of the DNA ladder that matches the sequence: ATTCGCA
(know how to make base pairs so you can write out the complimentary strand for a section of DNA!)
characteristics of DNA
double stranded, contains deoxyribose sugar, phosphate molecules, and bases ATG or C, bases are make up the inside of the ladder, the sides/backbone of DNA are made up of the sugar and phosphate molecules, * Be ABLE to LABEL the molecule, see notebook!
deoxyribonucleic acid, molecule that contains an organism's blueprint for life, has all the instructions of a living thing
a certain region of the DNA molecule that codes for a specific genetic trait (think dimples, or think hair color)
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
a single molecule of DNA
has three parts: sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base
Who discovered DNA?
James Watson and Francis Crick
a characteristic or feature of an organism
a characteristic that is beneficial to an organism's survival or reproduction
X-shaped structures, made up of DNA wound around proteins, contains genetic information of traits, made up of "chromatin"
inherited from the parents, the offspring contains traits that are expressed by the DNA in the genes they receive
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number, creates the gametes
occurs during PROPHASE I of meiosis, chromosomes cross over and the genes are swapped, allows for more genetic shuffling and variation occurs in offspring
represented with a capital or lowercase letter, it is one of the versions of a gene inherited from the father or mother.
a cell that contains a full set of chromosomes, in humans this is equal to 46 chromosomes) a diploid cell can not be a gamete (sperm or egg cell/sex cell)
a cell that contains only half of the total chromosomes, haploid cells are gametes, in humans they contain 23 chromosomes
only one parent is needed, offspring are identical, methods include budding, regeneration, vegetative propagation, and binary fission (mostly prokaryotic)
two parents are involved, offspring are genetically different, genes are inherited from a mother and father, gametes combine to form the baby
Punnett Square problems: What must you be able to do on a free response question?
1. read the problem and cross the parent genotypes.
2. set up the Punnett Square and fill in boxes for possible offspring.
3. write out % genotypes AA, Aa, aa and the % phenotypes (color fur, tall/short ears, etc.)
RR or rr
homozygous genotype, RR is called homozygous dominant, and rr is called homozygous recessive
heterozygous genotype, the dominant allele is expressed and masks the recessive allele
What ways do animals behave in order to attract mates?
mating call, bird song, bird dance or display of feathers, competition for female between other males, etc.
How do some behaviors help insure that offspring survive?
Parents protect their young, take care of the young after birth and raise the young, parental care exists; know examples from your science notebook p. 94 from class
sex cell, (sperm cell or egg cell)
scientist that took the image of the DNA molecule using xray crystallography, it was her photograph that helped Watson and Crick figure out DNA was a helix!
Four types of asexual reproduction methods?
Know your terms from your notebook: budding, regeneration, vegetative propagation, binary fission. Know an examples of each method/definition that you can identify.
process of cell division that includes interphase, mitosis/meiosis, and finally cytokinesis (cytoplasm is split!) IPMAT-cytokinesis!
meiosis key points!
4 cells produced, crossing over adds variation, two rounds of PMAT, all genetically different gametes made, half chromosomes in each cell!
What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
The main purpose of mitosis is to repair, replace and grow cells as an organism. The main purpose of meiosis is so that offspring can be made!
Punnett Square practice? you need to be able to work out a PS problem on the test.
use the key to the 25 Punnett Square problems, both found in Ebackpack
Insects and animals move pollen from the stamen (via anther) to the pistil (ovary) when feeding on nectar in the flower. This helps pollinate the flower to make seeds and both organisms benefit!
DNA to RNA, what are the base pairs formed?
A pairs with U, T pairs with A, G pairs with C, and C pairs with G
Transcribe and translate a DNA strand:
ATC CCG GAT
mRNA is UAG GGC CUA
tRNA is AUC CCG GAU
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
Who betrayed Rosalind Franklin and delivered her work on the DNA molecule to another lab?
A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits. (in-between trait or intermediate)
incomplete dominance example
red flower + white flower = pink flower
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism, the both are seen and co-exist in the organism
AB blood type, black and white feathered chickens, roan horses
Human chromosomes = our genome that contains _______ chromosomes. Our gametes contain ________ chromosomes.
Human cell = 46 chromosomes
Gametes (sperm or egg cell) = 23 chromosomes
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