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Gregor Mendel

bred garden peas in order to study patterns of inheritance

particulate inheritance

type of inheritance where inherited characteristics are carried by discrete units known as genes

multiplication rule

for finding probability of two independent events happening, multiply chance of one happening by the chance that the other will happen

addition rule

for finding when more than one arrangement of events producing the specified outcome is possible, the probabilities for each outcome are added together

law of dominance

when 2 organisms, each homozygous for two opposing traits are crossed the offspring will be hybrid but will exhibit only the dominant trait


carrying 2 different alleles

law of segregation

states that during the formation of gametes, the 2 traits carried by each parent will separate

Monohybrid cross

Tt x Tt is this type of cross; cross of 2 organisms each hybrid for one trait




chemical makeup; types of genes


way to determine the genotype of an individual plant or animal showing the dominant trait; individual bring tested is crossed with homozygous dominant

law of independent assortment

applies when a cross is carried out between 2 individuals hybrid for 2 or more traits that are not on the same chromosome; the only factor that determines how these alleles segregate or assort is how the homologous pairs line up in metaphase of meiosis I

dihybrid cross

cross between individuals hybrid for 2 or more traits not on the same chromosome

linked genes

genes that are on the same chromosome; they won't assort independently

phenotype ratio of a dihybrid cross


incomplete dominance

dominance that's characterized by blending


dominance where both traits show because there is a single gene locus at which 2 allelic variants are possible, making it so the hybrid is NOT an intermediate of the 2 phenotypes; such as blood groups in humans (A, B, AB, O)

multiple alleles

more than 2 forms of allelic forms of a gene


ability of a single gene to affect an organism in several or many ways; ex: in siamese cats, an allele responsible for coloration pattern is responsible for cross-eyed trait


2 separate genes control 1 trait, but 1 gene masks the expression of the other gene. the gene that masks the expression of the other gene is epistatic to the gene it masks. ex: melanin production has 2 alleles, C, which produces pigment, and c, which doesn't. if C isn't there to make melanin in the first place, even if a 2nd gene codes for melanin deposition, none will deposit because C isn't there.


many characteristics like skin, hair color, and height come from a blending of several separate genes that vary along a continuum.

nurture vs. nature

interaction of genetic predisposition and the environment

sex-influenced trait

inheritance influenced by the sex of he individual carrying the traits; NOT sex-linked necessarily

# of linkage groups

is equal to the number of chromosomes; humans have 46


44 chromosomes (1st 22 pairs) of the 46

sex chromosomes

2 chromosomes (23rd pair); X and Y OR X and X


traits carried on the X chromosome (Y is too short); females inherit 2 copies of these genes; males inherit 1 of these genes on their one X

recessive mutation

females only express this mutation if they have 2 mutated genes


carries one of each gene; males can't be this for sex-linked genes

dominant mutation

females can express this mutation if they have only 1 of this mutated gene

sex-linked examples

color blindness, hemophilia, muscular distrophy


the farther apart genes are on a chromosome, the more likely they'll be separated from each other during meiosis due to this event occuring at the chiasmata. makes it so AB x ab has 4 types of gametes(AB, Ab, aB, ab) instead of 2(AB, ab). is a major source of variation in sexually producing organisms


the result of crossing over; is a major source of variation in sexually producing organisms

map unit

distance on a chromosome that is the distance within which recombination occurs 1% of the time; rate of crossover doesn't give actual distance, but can give order of linked genes on the chromosome

linkage map

maps the differences between genes that are linked


family tree that indicates the phenotype of one trait being studied for every member of the family; used to find how particular trait is inherited

x inactivation

early in the development of the embryo of a female mammal, one of the 2 chromosomes is inactivated in every somatic cell

genetic mosaic

produced by x inactivation in female mammals because sometimes one x is inactivated, sometimes the other is inactivated

barr body

the dark spot on the chromatin of every somatic cell in a female that is produced due to x inactivation


changes in the genome; there are chromosome types and gene types

genetic disorders

PKU, cystic fibrosis, tay-sachs huntington's disease, hemophilia, color blindness, duchenne muscular distrophy, sickle cell

chromosomal disorders

down syndrome, turner's syndrome, klinefelter's syndrome


when a fragment lacking a centromere is lost during cell division


when a chromosomal fragment reattaches to its original chromosome but in the reverse orientation


when a fragment of a chromosome becomes attached to a nonhomologous chromosome


when a cell or organism has extra sets of chromosomes


error that sometimes happens during meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate as they shouuld


any abnormal number of chromosomes


chromosome present is in triplicate


an organism with extra set of chromosome is called this; 3n


organism with extra sets of chromosomes

extranuclear genes

genes found in the mitochondria and chloroplasts; defects in the DNA here affects amount of ATP made and therefore the nervous system and muscles; always inherited from the mother

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