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AP Comp KhanAcademy Vocab
Terms in this set (38)
Error that results when the number of bits is not enough to represent the number (like a car's odometer "rolling over").
Error that results when the number of bits is not enough to represent the number with full precision (like using 3 digits to represent pi as 3.14).
Data about data, like descriptive information about a file or a row in a database.
Compressing data in a way that preserves all data away and allows full recovery of the original.
Compressing data in a way that discards some data and makes it impossible to recover the original.
The sequential execution of steps in an algorithm or code in a program.
A Boolean condition to determine which two paths are taken in an algorithm or program.
The repetition of steps in an algorithm or program for a a certain amount of times or until a certain conditio is met.
An algorithm that iterates through each item in a list until it finds the target value.
An algorithm that searches a sorted list for a value by repeatedly halving the list in half.
A run time for an algorithm that doesn't increase faster than a polynomial function of the input size (like 10n or n-squared). An unreasonable run time would increase superpolynomially (like 2n, or n!).
A technique that helps an algorithm find a good solution in a hard problem (like always walking toward the north star when you are stuck in a forest).
A problem that is so logically difficult, we cant ever create an algorithm that would be able to answer "yes" or "no" for all inputs (like the halting problem).
Application Programming Interface, a library of procedures and a description of how to call each procedure.
The number of bits that are transferred per second, typically measured in Kbps, Mbps, Gbps.
The maximum bit rate of network connection.
The time elapsed between sending a message and the recipient receiving the message.
IP (Internet Protocol)
The protocol that determines how to address nodes on the network (w/ IP addresses) and how to route data from one node to a destination node (using routers).
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
The protocol that is in charge of splitting data into small packets and reliably transmitting the packets to a destination.
DNS (Domain Name System)
A hierarchical system of name servers that are responsible for mapping domain names (like khanacademy.org) to IP addresses.
TLS (Transport Layer Security)
A protocol that adds a layer of encryption to TCP/IP connection, necessary for sending data privately across the internet.
A technique for encrypting data where the same key is used to both encrypt and decrypt data.
Public key encryption
An asymmetric encryption technique that uses different keys for encrypting versus decrypting data.
The combination of the HTTP and TLS protocols to create secured connections to websites.
A small amount of text that tracks information about a user visiting a website.
Distributed Denial-of-Service attacks (DDoS)
A cyber attack that floods a server with an enormous number of requests, so that it does not have the resources to service normal user requests.
A type of computer malware that hides within the source code of another question.
An application that attempts to detect and remove computer malware downloaded to a computer.
A system that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic to a computer and filters out unwanted traffic.
An attack where a user is tricked into revealing private information, often via a deceptive email.
The practice of using a network of computers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data, instead of a local server or personal computer. Users may use cloud computing to run their applications (like Amazon Web Services).
A prediction that the number of transistors on a chip doubles every two years, correlating to an increased speed in computers.
A system where one user's computer connects through the Internet to another user's computer without going through an intermediary "centralized" computer to manage the connection.
A model in which many online users combine efforts to help fund projects, generate ideas, or create goods or services (like Wikipedia).
Crowdsourcing for science! The partcipation of volounteers from the public in a scientific research project (like collecting rain samples or counting butterflies).
An alternative to copyright that allows people to declare how they want their artistic creations to shared, remixed, used in noncommercial contexts, and how the policy should propagate with remixed versions.
A policy that allows people to have read access to documents (like research papers) or data (like government data-sets).
The idea that some communities or populations have less access to computing than others, typically due to limitations of internet speed or computer hardware access.