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Element Builder Gizmo Vocabulary
Terms in this set (25)
The basic unit of matter
• An atom is the smallest particle of an element that still has all the properties of the element.
• Atoms are made up of smaller particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. The smaller electrons orbit around a central nucleus of protons and neutrons.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
• Elements are distinguished from one another by their atomic numbers.
• For example, any atom with two protons is an atom of helium.
• The symbol for the atomic number is Z.
• In an element symbol, the atomic number is shown
at lower left.
A negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus
• The mass of an electron is less than one thousandth of the mass of a proton.
Electron dot diagram
A diagram that shows the element symbol surrounded by dots representing valence electrons
• For example, the electron dot diagram at right shows that neutral helium atoms have two valence electrons.
A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
• Elements are made of one type of atom
• Atoms of different elements are distinguished by the number of protons in the nucleus. For example, all carbon atoms have 6 protons
A particular region where electrons can orbit a nucleus
An atom or molecule that has an electrical charge because it has gained or lost electrons
• An atom with more protons than electrons is a positively charged ion, or cation
• An atom with more electrons than protons is a negatively charged ion, or anion
• In an element symbol, the electric charge is shown at upper right
One of several forms of the same element
• All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons, but differ in the number of neutrons
• Most isotopes are radioactive. Usually only one or two stable isotopes exist for a given element
The number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
• For example, the mass number of helium is 4 (2 protons and 2 neutrons)
• The symbol for the mass number is A
• In an element symbol, the mass number is shown
at upper left
A particle with no charge located in the nucleus of an atom
• Neutrons have slightly more mass than protons
• The number of neutrons is described by the neutron number, N
• To find the number of neutrons, subtract the atomic number from the mass number
The positively charged, dense center of an atom
• The nucleus contains protons and neutrons
A chart that organizes the chemical elements based on their properties
A positively charged particle located in the nucleus of an atom
• Protons have slightly less mass than neutrons
• The number of protons determines the element
Capable of releasing radiation
• In a radioactive atom, the nucleus can spontaneously decay and emit particles and/or light. These emissions are called radiation
• The energy released by radioactive substances can be harnessed to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant. This energy also can be used to create a massive explosion in a nuclear bomb
• If the emissions change the number of protons in the nucleus, the atom becomes a different element
Electrons found in the outermost energy level of an atom
Protons and Neutrons
_____ and _____ are found in the nucleus of an atom.
Protons have a _____ _____ and a mass of 1 amu.
Neutrons are electrically _____ and have a mass of 1 amu.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is the _____ _____.
Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons are called _____.
The _____ _____ of an atom is the sum of the protons and neutrons in its nucleus.
The _____ _____ of an element is the average mass of all the naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
Electrons have a _____ _____.
Within the _____ _____, electrons are arranged in energy levels.
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