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AP World Civilizations Fall Review

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Interactions between Muslims and Europeans during the seventeenth century are most commonly found in
the Indian Ocean
An example of diffusion rather than independent invention is
the origin of the Greek alphabet
Early agriculture in the America's
began later than in the Eastern Hemisphere
The Agricultural Revolution
saw the use of agricultural methods that encouraged migration
During the Agricultural Revolution, women
observed and studied the agricultural environment
The neolithic period
saw the beginnings of urbanization
Early urban dwellers
saw the need for a government
The Egyptian civilization was similar to the Sumerian civilization
in its system of social stratification
The earliest civilizations in both the Eastern and Western hemispheres were similar in
their practice of polytheism
The Indus valley civilization
relied heavily on communal planning
The early civilization with the least developed technology was
Mesoamerican
The Maya civilization
was a byproduct of cultural diffusion from earlier Mesoamerican societies, had a stratified society, and developed a city-state political structure(all of the above)
Shang China
contributed to the development of central government in China
Early societies of South America
relied on community cooperation to construct irrigation systems
Results of cultural diffusion among early civilizations included
the legend of Quetzalacoatl
All of the following Chinese traditions and achievements began under the Han dynasty EXCEPT
Confucian philosophy
The roots of classical India included
Vedictraditional literature
From the time of the Roman republic to the Pax Romana
the territory of Rome continued to expand
under both the Han and Roman empires
Imperial roads were connected to the Silk Roads, new territories were added to the empires, a time of peace settled over both empires, and enduring cultural traditions were established(all of the above)
The Hellenistic empire of Alexander
blended Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cultures
Under Gupta India
Arabic numerals originated in India
The Persians
continued the traditions of ancient Mesopotamia
Greek society
was extended through overseas colonization
Both Hinduism and Buddhism
(None of the above)
Christianity
taught the forgiveness of sins through faith in Jesus
Confucianism and early Buddhism
did not believe that their founders were gods
Daoism and Confucianism
based their teachings on Chinese traditions
The Silk Roads were especially instrumental in the spread of
Buddhism
During the period of the late Roman Empire, Christianity
experienced a change in its official status
Hinduism
addressed the consequences of one's behavior
Buddhism
changed over time to teach that common people could reach nirvana
During the classical period, Africa
saw new technology used in trans-Saharan travel
The decliningyears of Han China and the Roman empire shared all of the following EXCEPT
assimilations of invading peoples into imperial culture
Attempts to save the Roman Empire from ruin included
the establishment of a new capital in the eastern empire
The eastern portion of the Roman Empire
was a center of trade, art, and architecture
The decline of Gupta India
saw the increased power of local princes
SIlk Road trade
established links between the empires of Han China and Rome
Indian Ocean trade
saw mariners utilize the geographic forces of the Indian Ocean
The decline of Han China
witnessed Daoism, rather than Confucianism, gaining popularity
With regard to the doctrines of Islam in the peropd 600-1450,
they were embraced by members of the lower Hindu castes in Indian because of their emphasis on equality.
The area in which Islam showed the most profound change during the seventh to the fifteenth centuries was in
the role of women
One of the weaknesses of the early Muslim empires was
failure to resolve questions of succession
The Abbasid dynasty
proved the high point of Muslim cultural achievement
Which of the following qualifies as a primary source on the teachings of Muhammad?
The Hadith
Muhammad
built on the religious traditions of the Arabian peninsula
The Five Pillars
provide unity within Islam
As a new faith, Islam gained strength
within portions of the former Roman Empire
Confucianism
combined with Buddhism to create a cultural bridge between China and Korea
Which was NOT an achievement of the Tang dynasty?
the solution to the problem of nomadic peoples along China's border
The position of Chinese women
was defined by Confucianism
Japanese feudalism
saw the beginnings of a centralized Japan
Compared to the Viets, the Chinese were more
urbanized
Compared to Korean attitudes toward the Chinese, those of the Japanese
were similar in their desire to become part of the Chinese trading system
The position of the Chines scholar-gentry
weakened efforts to curb nomadic invasions
Buddhism became more popular among China's neighbors than in China itself because
Buddhism did not originate in China
In contrast to Japanese feudalism, Western European feudalism
created a reciprocal relationship between lord and vassal
Early medieval Europe's strongest state was
the Holy Roman Empire
The period of greatest population decline in Europe during the Middle Ages was
the 14th century
During the Middle Ages, the concept of limited government was seen most clearly in
England
Which statement describes Europe between the ninth to fifteenth centuries?
the expansion of the Eastern world into Western Europe
Trade during the medieval period
placed Europe within the Muslim commercial network
The fifteenth century saw
the strengthening of nation-states in England and France
Medieval Europe
developed new banking institutions from multicultural contacts
Under Mongol rule in China
Chinese regional rulers were allowed to govern
The influence of nomadic peoples in Eurasia
created reciprocal relationship between nomads and settled peoples
Both the Aztecs and Incas
built on the traditions of their predecessors
Aztec and Incan religions
reflected the agrarian nature of their respective societies
The natives of North America
used architectural designs similar to those of Mesoamerica
Mongol rule in Russia and China differed in that
the Mongols became more involved in administration in China than in Russia
Historians studying linguistic syncretism would be most interested in
the Bantu migrations
The Black Death
changed the course of political institutions
The Yuan dynasty was brought down by all of the following EXCEPT
foreign resistance to the Mongol Peace
The Renaissance
was a result of the Crusades
European exploration through the mid-fifteenth century
depended upon the knowledge of the Eastern world
Which of the American societies altered their environment most extensively?
the Aztecs
The Aztec and Incan civilizations differed most significantly in their
system of recordkeeping
Trade among the peoples of the Americas
was most similar in the Maya and Toltec societies
Which of the American peoples was closest to the Persians in their administrative style?
the Incas
Both the Aztecs and Incas
were tribute empires
Mercantilism
sparked further rivalries among European nations
In the early eighteenth century, the political system where citizens enjoyed the greatest amount of self-rule was
England
Both the Russian empire and Ming China
established policies that were a reaction to the Mongol presence in central Asia
A comparison of the reactions of Japan and China to European influence in the period 1450-1750 shows that
Japan saw the need for knowledge of Western developments, but China did not
Compared to the Spanish empire, that of the Portuguese
was more global in its extent
The Mughal empire
produced art and architecture that reflected syncretism
The Ottoman empire
weakened because its technology fell behind that of Europe
The nation-state
arose in Europe because of its diversity of cultural groups
European explorations
sought to break established trade monopolies
The Columbian Exchange
produced both positive and adverse effects on world population
The English and French engaged in rivalries over territories in
North America
The region with the greatest number of colonial and commercial competitors was
Indonesia
The Netherlands established commercial or colonial interests in all of the following areas EXCEPT
western Africa
Which of the following regions sustained trade patterns that were the most different from the others before the 18th century?
Russia
Which crop arrived in the Amerixas as part of the Columbian Exchange as a key product of the Americas?
sugar
As a result of the hemispheric trade between 1450-1750,
European wealth and commercial dominance increased
African kingdoms in the period from 1450-1750
were involved in the slave trade before the arrival of Europeans
Compared to the trans-Atlantic slave trade, that of eastern Africa
also involved the plantation system
Within Africa, the slave trade
increased African dependence on European nations
Historians searching for the earliest models of European plantation slavery would need to study
the history of the Madeira and Canary Islands
The African slave trade
was frequently the result of African rivalries
The trans-Atlantic slave trade
increased after the establishment of sugar plantations
When the Portuguese first became involved in the slave trade
they were interested primarily in gold and spices
Sugar plantations
especially valued slave from western Africa
Bothe the Protestant Reformation and the Enlightenment
questioned political authority
Chinese technological and philosophical developments
assisted the spread of Reformation thought
All of the following describe the Scientific Revolution EXCEPT that
it was modeled on Chinese philosophy
Enlightenment thought
resembled Renaissance thought
The Protestant and Catholic Reformations were alike
in their emphasis on education
The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
both held that reason could be used to improve humanity
Which of the following is NOT a finding of the Scientific Revolution or the Enlightenment?
Movable type
Which of the following concepts of the period 1450-1750 did NOT rely on natural laws?
Predestination
A major difference between the teachings of Buddhism and Hinduism is
belief in nirvana
Bantu-speakers settled in all of the following areas of Africa EXCEPT
West Africa
An element of Chinese culture that the Japanese did not adopt was
the civil service examination system
The Delhi Sultanate and the Aztecs had which of the following methods of governing in common?
Tribute system
Which of the following was a major problem that led to the decline of both the Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire?
Neither empire had a clear policy on the succession of the ruler
Which of the following most clearly differentiates the period from 1450-1750 from earlier periods?
The inclusion of the Americas in the global trade network
Although different in their sources of power, the governments of Great Britain and France had which of the following characteristics in common?
Both nations had a small elite of landowning aristocrats who were considered the "natural" ruling class with power and influence in the government
Which of the following developments in the Americas accounted most directly for the growth of slave trade?
the establishment of the plantaion system of sugar production in the Caribbean and Brazil
A major idea that the freamers of the US Constitution absorbed from the enlightenment was
the concept of a federal republic
All of the following are causes of the Industrial Revolution EXCEPT
urbanization
"It is the imminent peril threathening you and all the faithful, which has brought us hither. From the confines of Jerusalem and the city of Constantinople a horrible tale has gone forth..."
The above was probably spoken about which of the following?
the capture of the Holy Land by the Seljuk Turks
Which of the following that occurred in western Europe in the period from 1450 to 1750 did not result in long-term changes?
the growth of strong centralized monarchies
Which of the following is the best description of the effect of the Age of Exploration of Europeans?
As a result of the decline in the fortunes of the feudal nobility and the rise in the fortunes of the merchant class, monarchies were able to limit the influence of the feudal nobility
Which of the following actions had a long-term effect on relations between western and eastern Europe in the Middle Ages?
the crowning of Charlemagne by the pope
All of the following were direct results of the Crusades EXCEPT
the decline of feudalism
All of the following are accurate descriptions of the difference between Hinduism and Islam EXCEPT
Hinduism rejects the use of human form in religious and secular art, whereas the human form is an important subjuect in Islamic art
All of the following were unintended results of the Mongol invasions EXCEPT
the collapse of the Byzantine Empire
The major reason why pastoral nomadism did not develop in the Americas was
the lack of large domesticated animals such as cattle
Which of the following is an accurate description of an economic difference that existed between the Roman Empire and Han China?
Han China relied less on a slave labor system than did the Roman Empire
Which of the following is the most accurate description of the similarities between the Sudanic empires of Africa and the empires of the Aztecs and Inca?
The empireds relied on military force to enlarge their territories
Which of the following is an accurate description of a cultural characteristic that the Celts, Slavs, and Germans of northern Europe had in common around 200 CE?
the overall political organization of the Celts, Slavs and Germans evolved into regional kingdoms
Bedouins were instrumental in spreading which of the following religions?
Islam on the Arabian Peninsula
Which of the following is not an accurate description of why Islam appealed to so many people?
Because Islam lacked any legal code, it was possible to adapt Islam to any form of governmental organization
Which of the following were trading partners of the Abbasid Empire?
The Mediterranean region and China
The area of the African continent that was most significantly affectec by the slave trade was
West Africa
Which of the following best describes the East African trading centers prior to the arrival of the Portuguese?
The cities were a mix of black African and Islamic peoples and culture traits
ALl of the following are general characteristics of pastoral nomadic societies EXCEPT
there was little intertribal warfare
According to Confucius the most important aspect of the role of the scholar-gentry was
to maintain harmony among the social classes by administering the state and advising the ruler wisely
Which of the following was a major difference between the way the Roman Empire was administered and the way the later Byzantine Empire was governed?
The Roman Empire lacked the bureaucratic system of administration that the Byzantine Empire developed
which of the following challenged Hinduism?
Buddhism
All of the following are true about sub-Saharan African societies prior to the arrival of Europeans EXCEPT
the idea of kings as rulers rather than kinship groups with a chief and council of elders never became popular among the rain forest or savanna peoples
All of the following modern nations lacked centrailized monarchies at the end of the Middle Ages EXCEPT
Spain
A major difference between the Amerindians of North America and the Aztec of Mesoamerica prior to the arrival of Europeans was
the importance of kindship as the unit of organization among the North Americans
Which of the following was instrumental in making Europeans the leaders of global trade in the 1400s
The Ming ended all Chinese trading ventures to India, the Middle East, and Africa, opening the way for others
All of the following resulted from the Protestant Reformation EXCEPT
the general acceptance of personal freedom of religion
By 1600 the expansion of which of the following had ended invasions from Central Asia?
Russia and the Ottoman Empire
A major difference between the Inca and the Aztec was
the development of limited pastoralism by the Inca
Which of the following were important trading cities along the East Coast of Africa?
Kilwa, Mogadishu, and Sofala
Which of the following is the most accurate description of the effect of the Industrial Revolution on European society?
All classes were better off than they had been before industrialization
The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453 coincides with which of the following events in Europe?
The invention of the printing press
"An accountable peasantry subject to other men; much use of the service tenement(ie, the fief) rather than salary, which was inconceivable; the dominance of a military class; agreements concerning obedience and protection which bound man to man and, in the military class, assumed the distinctive form called vassalage, the breakdown of central authority."
The passage above most likely describes conditions in
13th century France
"An accountable peasantry subject to other men; much use of the service tenement(ie, the fief) rather than salary, which was inconceivable; the dominance of a military class; agreements concerning obedience and protection which bound man to man and, in the military class, assumed the distinctive form called vassalage, the breakdown of central authority."
According the the passage, the holder of a fief
must provide military service to his lord
All of the following held colonies outside of Europe during the 17th century EXCEPT
Germany
Which of the following is a system of though based on the ideas of Saint Thomas Aquinas and Aristotle?
scholasticism
Which of the following Russian leaders was most responible for adopting Western European customs in the Russian empire?
Peter the Great
Which of the following most likey accounts for the growth in human population between 3000 bc and AD 200?
the development of plant and animal domestication
Confusicianism is characterized by all of the following beliefs EXCEPT
devotion to one's family is not as important as devotion to himself
The Five Pillars of Islam include all of the following EXCEPT
evangelism
Nicholas Copernicus, Rene Descartes and Martin Luther were alike in that they each
promulgated ideas that opposed those of the Roman Catholic church
Paintings of the High Renaissance are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
an exact imitation of nature
"Behold then the true form and worth of foreign trade, which is, the great revenue of the king, the honour of the kingdom, the noble profession of the merchant, the school of our arts, the supply of our wants, the employment of our poor, the improvements of our lands, the nursery of our mariners, the wars of the kingdom, the means of our treasure, the sinews of our wars, the terror of our enemies."
The economic theory described above is best termed
mercantilism
An immediate cause of the French Revolution was
the excess spending of the monarchy coupled with the refusal of nobles to pay taxes
Galileo's "Dialogue Concerning the Two System's" contradicted the scientific conclusions arrived at by
Ptolemy
The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt was characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
a wide distribution of wealth
Which of the following was not a country under the control of Napoleon Bonaparte?
England
England's early victories in the Hundred Year's War were due in part to
the efficient use of the longbow
By 1800 Britain had colonies in all of the following areas EXCEPT
Indonesia
Between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the center of European trade moved from
central Europe to the Atlantic coast
Babylonian civilization was characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
an economy based on hunting and gatherine
the discovery of the Rosetta Stone led to which of the following?
The ability of archaeologists to read and understand Egyptian hieroglyphics
Which of the following is true of Buddhism?
Peace and enlightenment are sought through meditation
All of the following were policies of Frederick the Great of Prussia EXCEPT
German unification
During the Sung dynasty Chinese bureaucrats were chosen on the basis of
examinations
In 1240, the Mongols held territory in all of the following EXCEPT
France
India's caste system, Japan's samurai class, and France's Three Estates all embody the principles of
social stratification