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Gen Chem 2 - Thermodynamics
Terms in this set (17)
equal to the system's internal energy plus the product of its pressure and volume (similar to energy/heat); heat of reaction at constant pressure
the disorder/randomness in a system
Gibbs Free(d) Energy
delta(G) = delta(H) -[(T)delta(S)] ; thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum amount of reversible work that may be performed by the system
concentration of products and reactants doesn't vary; forward and reverse reactions occur at equal rate ; reversible
Which of the following statements about equilibrium are true?
delta G sys = 0
delta S sys = 0
delta S univ = 0
delta G sys = 0 & delta S univ = 0
What does standard condition mean?
Is temperature a requirement of standard state conditions?
Standard Conditions are 1 atm or 1 M concentrations.
Temperature is not a requirement in the standard conditions. Although the Tables are compiled at 25°C, the ΔH° and S° tables can be used at any temperature.
Write the standard formation reaction of
Ca (s) + C (graphite) + 3/2 O2(g) → CaCO3
N2(g) + 5/2 O2(g) → N2O5
(Always form 1 mol of product from the elements in their standard states. The formation reactions do not have to have whole number coefficients.)
Determine the sign of ΔH° for
H2(g) + ½ O2(g) → H2O(l) + 285.8 kJ
ΔH° = negative and the reaction is exothermic
For the reaction
2CO (g) + O2(g) → 2 CO2(g) ΔH° = −566 kJ
If 250g of CO is reacted with excess oxygen, how much heat is exchanged?
convert from grams to moles to kilojoules
Identify the gases under standard state conditions at 25°C.
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, He, Ne, Ar, Xe, Kr, Rn
Which of the following shows negative delta S or decrease in entropy?
a.) liquid phase to gas phase
b.) liquid phase to solid phase
c.) 2 moles of gas to 1/2 moles of gas
d.) 1/2 moles of gas to 2 moles of gas
b & c
Which substance has the greater value of S,
C (graphite, s) or C (diamond, s) ?
Graphite carbon has higher entropy.
Its bonded into flat sheets that can slide past one another. Diamond an the other hand is tetrahedrally bonded and has virtually no movement except bond vibration.
Predict whether the following processes are endothermic or exothermic
Boiling of water to make steam
Condensation of water vapor
Dissolution of solid KCl in water
Combustion of C2H5OH(l) in oxygen
Endothermic (salts can be endothermic or exothermic)
What factors determine the spontaneity of a reaction?
Entropy, Enthalpy, and sometimes Temperature
Entropy is a measure of the dispersal of _________ and _______.
matter and energy
The _________ the molecular motion of a system, the greater the entropy of the system.
The higher the temperature, the ________ the entropy of a system.
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