recognizing the three tiers of vocabulary, selecting words for vocabulary instruction that may pose special challenges for English language learners [e.g., idiomatic expressions, cognates and false cognates], teaching word parts/analysis, preteaching content vocabulary, teaching concepts versus labels, reinforcing vocabulary through meaningful exposure to and opportunities to use new vocabulary in context).
word guesses, semantic maps, interactive word walls, drama and chants), including using technology to build vocabulary.
explicit instruction in academic vocabulary, clear explanations of academic language structures and vocabulary, sentence frames
Lesson Preparation » use pre-tests and data to inform instruction.
Building Background » explicit connections to previous learning (we already talked about fractions and equations, today we'll put that together), explicitly and repeatedly teach relevant vocabulary, ask students to recall any connections/ past experiences with a topic.
Comprehensible Input » clarity, slow aural, visual aids, scaffolding, graphic organizers, highlighted words, study guides, multiple explanations, partner reading/ paraphrasing
Strategies » Instructional - activities in the classroom: author's chair, partner work
Learning - strategic thinking when learning, underline important info, structure, know when you need to re-read, etc. Metacognition
Interaction » Ratio, students speaking with each other through lesson and day. Activities: discussion, complete tasks together, etc.
Practice and Application » doing these techniques
Lesson Delivery » Think aloud, strong ratio, scaffolding strategies
Review and Assessment » Portfolios to self assess student growth and development, have students reflect on their growth over time.
1. Teach to the Highest >> safe space
2. Brain Research--Metacognition >> activate prior knowledge, scaffold, organize, think aloud (teacher or student)
3. Brain Research and Second Language Acquisition >> A student set purpose for learning; motivating, stated result or goal; Chances to negotiate meaning from language and text; cooperative activities
4. Reading and Writing To, With, and By Students >> Reading that stresses the purpose and joy before the skills; Direct teaching of concepts, vocabulary, and necessary skills; text patterns, academic language, writing patterns; decoding skills; Writing that stresses the metacognitive use of reading and writing as a process; use of clustering/brainstorming to initiate writing; acceptance of developmental level of writer; editing and revising done in appropriate places in the process. No over-editing in early drafts; not all writing brought to editing stage; use of conferencing methods to guide student through the process; use of logs for personal responses to texts or issues; use of interactive journals; Language functional environment; language charts, poetry kept on walls - read and used by students
5. Active participation in all components of the unit, (ratio)
6. A theme, year planning, and strategies that foster standards-based learning respect, trust, identity, and voice. The use of personal interaction values oral ideas and cross-cultural respect.
7. Ongoing assessment and evaluation using a variety of tools to provide reflection on what has been learned, how it was learned and what will be done with the information.
Make the reading-writing connection by exposing ESL learners to a wide variety of literary forms in reading and then provide opportunities for learners to construct their own forms to share with others
diaries or journals to promote fluency in writing and to help students see writing as one means of self-expression
narrative, expository, persuasive: lab reports, research reports
mechanics, syntax, grammar, spelling
collaborative writing, facilitated writing, shared writing, process writing, journal writing
using graphic organizers, writing templates, semantic maps