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MZC1: Chapter 5 (DW)
Terms in this set (54)
Behavioral Learning Theories
Explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior.
Social Learning Theories
Learning theories that emphasize not only reinforcement but also the effects of cues on thought and of thought on action.
Cognitive Learning Theories
Explanations of learning that focus on mental processes.
A change in an individual that results from experience.
Environmental conditions that activate the senses; the singular is stimulus.
A stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response.
A behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus.
Stimuli that have no effect on a particular response.
A previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
The process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response.
The use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior.
An apparatus developed by B. F. Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments of operant conditioning.
Pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors and affect the frequency of future behaviors.
A pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior.
Food, water, or other consequence that satisfies a basic need.
A consequence that people learn to value through its association with a primary reinforcer.
Pleasurable consequence given to strengthen behavior.
Release from an unpleasant situation, given to strengthen behavior.
Rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activities.
Behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, without any other reward.
Praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not do otherwise.
Unpleasant consequences used to weaken behavior.
An unpleasant consequence that a person tries to avoid or escape.
An aversive stimulus following a behavior, used to decrease the chances that the behavior will occur again.
Withdrawal of a pleasant consequence that may be reinforcing a behavior, designed to decrease the chances that the behavior will recur.
Procedure of charging misbehaving students against their free time or other privileges.
Procedure of removing a student from a situation in which misbehavior was being reinforced.
The teaching of a new skill or behavior by means of reinforcement for small steps toward the desired goal.
The weakening and eventual elimination of a learned behavior as reinforcement is withdrawn.
The increase in levels of a behavior in the early stages of extinction.
Schedule of Reinforcement
The frequency and predictability of reinforcement.
Fixed-Ratio (FR) Schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following a fixed number of behaviors.
Variable-Ratio (VR) Schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable number of behaviors.
Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which a desired behavior is rewarded following a constant amount of time.
Variable-Interval (VI) Schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which desired behavior is rewarded following an unpredictable amount of time.
Continuation (of behavior).
Events that precede behaviors.
Signals as to which behavior(s) will be reinforced or punished.
Perception of and response to differences in stimuli.
Carryover of behaviors, skills, or concepts from one setting or task to another.
Imitation of others' behavior.
Learning by observation and imitation of others.
Learning based on observation of the consequences of others' behavior.
Rewarding or punishing one's own behavior.
Cognitive Behavior Modification
Procedures based on both behavioral and cognitive principles for changing one's own behavior by means of self-talk and self-instruction.
US (Unconditioned Stimulus)
always causes unconditioned response (putting something in mouth always causes salivation)
CS (Conditioned Stimulus)
learned relationship between neutral and unconditioned stimulus (understanding that bell means food is coming)
NS (Neutral Stimulus)
does not cause response (bell before conditioning phase)
UR (Unconditioned Response)
always caused by unconditioned stimulus (putting something in mouth always causes salivation)
CR (Conditioned Response)
response to conditioned stimulus (bell causes salivation)
Difference between classical and operant conditioning
CC starts with stimulus, ends with behavior (response)
CC focuses on involuntary, reflexive behavior
OC starts with behavior, ends with consequence
OC focuses on why we choose a particular behavior
Schedules of reinforcement most resistant to extinction
Variable ratio, variable interval
because we never know when reinforcement is coming
ability to monitor and regulate own learning behavior
ability to evaluate and reward own learning behavior