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Chapter 7-9

STUDY
PLAY
Developmental milestones
Key skills, such as learning to walk, used to check a child's progress against average development
Stimulating enviornment
A place in which babies have a wide variety of things to see, taste, smell, hear and touch
Growth chart
A chart that shows the average heights and weights of children at different ages
Proportion
Refers to the size relationship between different parts of the body
Depth perception
The ability to perceive objects as three-dimensional, not flat
Reflexes
Instinctive, automatic responses, such as grasping, sneezing or sucking in infants
Gross motor skills
Skills involve the large muscles of the body, such as those of the leg and shoulders
Fine motor skills
Skills involve the smaller muscles of the body, such as those in the fingers
hand-eye coordination
Ability to move the hands and fingers precisely in relation to what is seen. Needed for skills such as cutting
Antibodies
Substances produced by the body to fight off germs
Malnutrition
The effects of lack of enough food or adequate amounts needed nutrients.
Shaken baby syndrome
Condition that occurs when someone severely shakes a baby, usually in an effort to get the baby to stop crying
Weaning
Changing from drinking for the bottle or breast to a cup
Cradle cap
Skin condition in infancy known for yellowish, crusty patches on the scalp
Diaper rash
Skin condition that includes patches of rough, irriated skin in the diaper area. Sometimes, painful raw spots also develop
Teething
The process, sometimes painful, by which teeth push their way through the gums
Immunizations
Shots of a small amount of a dead or weakened disease-carrying germ given in order that the body may build resistance to the disease
Vaccine
Small amount of a dead or weakened disease-carrying germ that is injected so that the body can build resistance to the disease
Emotional development
Process of learning to recognize and express feelings and establish a unique personal identity
Social development
Process of learning self-expression and how to interact with others
Attachment
Bond between two people, such as between a child and a parent or other primary caregiver
Failure to thrive
Condition in which babies fail to grow and develop properly because of lack of love and attention
Temperament
Persons unique nature, which determines how he or she reacts to others and to the world
Colic
Condition in babies that results in extended periods of crying
Reflux
Condition in which partially digested food rises in the throat.
Neuron
Nerve cell
Neural pathways
Links between neurons that "wire" the brain so that the brain can control different body functions and thinking processes
Cortex
Part of the brains cerebrum. Its growth permits more complex learning
Axon
The connection between neurons that transmits instructions from the cell body to another neuron
Myelin
Waxy, protein-based substance that coats axons, making it easier to transmit information from one neuron to another
Dendrite
Branchlike features at the end of each axon that receive messages from other neurons
Synapse
Tiny gaps between dendrites where messages are transmitted from one neuron to another
Neurotransmitter
Chemicals released by axons that attach to dendrites with certain kinds of receptors
Perception
Ability to learn from sensory information
Attention span
Length of time a person can concentrate on a task without getting bored
Sensorimortor period
Psychologist Jean Piagets first stage of learning, from birth to about age 2
Object permanence
Concept that objects continue to exist even wehn they are out of sight
Imaginative play
Fantasy or dramatic play which imitates real-life situations
Symbolic thinking
Use of words and numbers to stand for ideas
Concepts
General categories of objects and information
Age appropriate
Things that are suitable for the age and individual needs of a child
Childproof
To take steps to protect a child from possible dangers in the home or early childhood classroom
Manipulate
To work with the hands
Stranger anxiety
a fear of unfamiliar people, usually expressed by crying
Play environment
comfortable space with no dangers and with toys that are safe and interesting
Cause and effect
one event is caused by another