Terms in this set (44)
money received, especially on a regular basis, for work or through investments.
The total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts
systematic disparities in income, wealth, health, education, access to technology, opportunity, and power among countries, communities, and households around the world.
Pros of technology in tackling global inequality
1. Mobile phone usage can help healthcare by making vaccine availability more transparent
2. Distribution of online educational resources to improve literacy
3. Farmers can make better desisions through access to micro-leading schemes, crop prices, and market prices
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations. Argues that states are rich because they have modern institutions
Con of technology in tackling global inequality
1. Automation may replace low-skilled work in developing countries
2. Developing countries can often not adopt new technologies easily
3. Emphasis on technology puts developed countries at an advantage because they have the most developed tech sectors
a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones
World Systems Theory
Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world.
A transglobal class of professionals who exercise considerable economic and political power that is not limited by national borders
Origins of the global elite
mostly from newly developed wealth due to innovations in finance, technology, and industry. But could also be due to rising stock prices
industrialized former colonial states that dominate the world economic system
the least developed and least powerful nations; often exploited by the core countries as sources of raw materials, cheap labor, and markets
the industrializing, mostly capitalist countries which are positioned between the periphery and core countries
composition of the global elite
corporate executives, presidents and prime ministers of powerful states, technologi¬cal innovators, those who control flows of global resources like oil, media moguls, some military elites, and a handful of well- known and active cultural and religious figures.
Sklair's classifications of the global elite
(1) a corporate fraction drawn from transnational corporations, (2) a state fraction composed of global political elites, (3) a technical fraction representing glo¬balizing professionals, and (4) a consumerist fraction made up of executives of marketing and media.
Global elite's goals
• They share global (not only local) interests and perspec¬tives, as well as consumer lifestyle choices.
• They seek to exercise control or influence over key politi¬cal, economic, and cultural-ideological processes on a global level.
• They hail from different national backgrounds, but they see themselves as citizens of the world rather than just citizens of particular states.
How do people in wealthy nation benefit from global poverty
1. access to cheap labor for the manufacturing of goods
2. increased profit margins for western companies
3. The existence of global poverty fosters access to resources in poor states that are needed in or desired by the West.
4. Medical companies can use poor people as test subject
5. Brain drain favors wealthy countries
6. Poor countries can be used as trash disposal sites
7. Jobs are created out of helping the global poor
8. Charity helps Westerns feel good
9. Large poor populations are a scapegoat for global warming
Prerequisites for social movements
1. A preexisting communications or infrastructure (black church black colleges)
2. such a communications network must be cooptable to the new ideas of the movement, i.e., they must include (NAACPM, CRE, CORE, NOW)
3. A crisis that motiveates the group (Rosa parks, "little girl")
New organizations can be formed out of the crisis (SCLC)
Functionalist Perspective on social change
Social change happens because of a linear (or multilinear) evolutionary process, which eventually guides towards an equilibrium that will not change unless outside forces (technology, economics). Ultimate goal is to enhance social stability
The development of increasing societal complexity through the creation of specialized roles and institutions
Conflict view of social change
Social change happens as a way for people to deal with conflicts and contradiction in societies (like uneven distribution of power) they represent a radical break from the past. Social change is counter-hegemonies going against the socialization of the status quo.
Rise-and-fall theories of social change
theories that see social change as characterized by a cycle of growth and decline.Change can be regressive or progress and may be influenced, think MLK vs Hitler
Sorokin's three types of societies
those that give primacy to the senses, those that emphasize religiosity, and those that celebrate logic and reason.
voluntary, goal-oriented action that occurs in relatively disorganized situations in which society's predominant social norms and values cease to govern individual behavior
norms that are situationally created to support a collective action
Smelser's value-added theory
assumes that certain conditions are necessary for the development of a social movement:
1. Structural conduciveness exists when the existing social structure favors the emergence of collective behavior.
2. Structural strain occurs when the social system breaks down.
3. Generalized beliefs are shared explanations of the conditions that are troubling people. People must define the problem, identify its causes, and—to use C. Wright Mills's phrase—come to see their personal troubles as public issues.
4. Precipitating factors are dramatic events that confirm the generalized beliefs of the group, thereby triggering action.
5. Mobilization for action occurs when leaders arise who encourage action.
6. The failure of social control leaves those charged with maintaining law and order unable to do so in the face of mounting pressures for collective action
reformist social movements
Movements seeking to bring about social change within the existing economic and political system. Examples include the U.S. civil rights movement, International human rights movement, and the same-sex marriage movement
revolutionary social movements
social movements that advocate for fundamental change in the existing social, political, and\or economic system in light of a detailed alternative vision. Examples include the Arab spring, Russian revolution
Rebellious social movements
social movements that advocate for fundamental change in the existing social, political, and\or economic system without detailed alternative vision. Examples include anti-autheity protests, urban riots after assassination of MLK.
Movements that advocate for a return to a previous system. Examples include white supremacists in the United States
Utopian social movements
movements seeking to withdraw from the dominant society by creating their own ideal communities
the process by which the interests, understandings, and values of a social movement organization are rendered congruent with those of the wider society
Main reasons for the rise of network society
Technology that benefited a network structure by being flexible (easily change goals of the network), scalable (shrink and grow without disturbance), and survivable (not dependent on all nodes working, if one goes out, it can be reproduced by other nodes).
Legitmizies the status quo, like world bank
Defensive identities that do not agree with the way society is working
Fundamentalist or revolutionary
Seek to make a new change in the system
Born out of resistance identities (but still a different type of identity!)
the stereotypical view of enslaved women as the nannies who love the white children they care for and therefore are trustworthy
The image of a controlling unwomanly black female in the household. Used as a justification for black poverty
Stereotype of black woman that is too fertile and breeds children to collect welfare
Sterotype that black women are whores
The belief that women's inequality is primarily the result of imperfect institutions, which can be corrected by reforms that do not fundamentally alter society itself.
The belief that women's inequality results from the combination of capitalistic economic relations and male domination; argues that both must be transformed fundamentally before women can achieve equality.
The belief that women's inequality underlies all other forms of inequality, including economic inequality.
The belief that inequality must be understood—and ended—for all women, regardless of race, class, nationality, age, sexual orientation, physical ability, or other characteristics.
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