Exam #5 Psychology
Terms in this set (85)
the external environment, or the behavioral context, can have both subtle and forceful effects on people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
tendency to attribute behavior to internal factors such as genes, personality traits, and character qualities
socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of persons in a given setting or group
a groups expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for its members attitudes and behavior
piaget; cognitive structure ; cluster of related concepts; provides general conceptual framework for thinking about a topic, event, object, person and situation. enables us to make predictions about what to expect in various settings.
knowledge about the sequence of events and actions that is expected in a particular setting.
men are more aggressive and action oriented; women are more submissive and more invested in appearance.
males should ask females out on date or hand in marriage, not the other way around.
social construction of reality
the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
Older Pilots have a poorer memory but are just as good when to-be-remembered info is flying-related.
seen in Asch's study; outwardly booing the Chiefs and cheering on the Raiders. On the inside, cheering the Chiefs
Milgram's study; you cheer loudly after being told to do so by man wearing scary-looking skull mask.
sherif's study; after having a great time at the game, you come to realize that you are a raiders fan.
-studied informational social influence with a study on the autokinetic effect. participants stared at a bright light in a uniformly dark environment which makes the light appear to move. all people saw it as moving a different amount of space so they came up with a group estimate to see how much it moved.
line judgment task. participants went along with the clearly incorrect majority 37% of the time. 25% of participants never conformed. 50% conformed for at least half of the critical presentations. the rest conformed on an occasional basis. [found self in awkward position - obvious that group was wrong]
Shock study. Research participants (teachers) believed that they were giving electric shocks to another participant (learners). 26 out of 40 participants continued to highest possible shock intensity (450 volts). All 40 participants went up to at least 350 volts. (Influence of authoritative figures).
conformity is greater in more _______________ countries.
(%) went all the way up to the maximum voltage level.
65% of participants
five group characteristics that impact conformity
size of group, unanimity of majority, task difficulty and ambiguity, competence of members, public or private responses.
a highly motivating state in which people have conflicting cognitions especially when their voluntary actions conflict with the attitudes or values. The unpleasant feeling that results from believing two contrary ideas at the same time.
Festinger and Carlsmith Study
participants complete a boring task. Some were paid $1 to lie to incoming participants and say the task was enjoyable. Others were paid $20 to lie. The subjects who were only paid $1 were more likely to feel dissonance because they receive insufficient justification for lying. As a response to the dissonance those paid $1 changed their mind and said the task was actually enjoyable, to remove the dissonance. Those paid $20 believed their lies were justified and did not feel dissonance and maintained that the task was boring.
Fundamental attribution error
the tendency to emphasize personal traits and minimize situational influences.
central route persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
peripheral route persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness;
view that places a high value on individual achievement and distinction.
view that values group loyalty and pride over individual distinction.
Bystander Problem (Kitty Genovese)
Laboratory and field study analogues of the difficulties faced by bystanders in real emergency situations.
diffusion of responsibility
dilution or weakening of each group member's obligation to act when responsibility is perceived to be shared with a ll group members.
The bystander problem
a student was led to believe that he or she was taking part in an experiment with between one and five other students over an intercom. The students then heard what sounded like another student having seizure and gasping for help. The researchers timed how long it would take the students to ask for help.
Festinger and Carlsmith
forced compliance theory -- paradigm that is closely related cognitive dissonance theory; social psychology. The authority or some other perceived higher-ranking person can force a lower-ranked individual to make statements or perform acts that violate their better judgment. It focuses on the goal of altering an individual's attitude through persuasion and authority.
Summary: if an individual performs an action that goes against what they initially believe, the belief will typically change.
The experimental condition involved giving either 1 or 20 dollars to try and convince the next participant that the experiment was fun.
persists on difficult tasks
a High n Ach person is likely to succeed in life because they
has a high desire for excitement.
a person who is sensation seeker
According to Ekman, which of the following is NOT on of the universal facial expressions.
An instinct is a tendency that is
Drives that are learned through experience are called
our physical state can influence our emotions
The James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that
Thirst, sexual desire, and hunger are examples of _________
Which of the following would be considered to be a motive rather than a drive
the power of situation can induce an ordinary person to harm another.
A key implication of Stanley Milgram's research is that
A smoker illustrates the process of ________ when he claims that the evidence of that smoking causes lung cancer is not very convincing.
A(n) ____ refers to one of the several socially defined behavior patterns expected of a person in a particular setting or group.
explanations that account for one's own behaviors and/or the behaviors of others.
be less likely to help other
As a result of diffusion of responsibility, people in a bystander situation tend to
the confederates were unanimous in their selection of line size.
In Solomon Asch's study, which factor increased the rate of conformity.
People with self-serving bias attribute their success to _____ factors and their failures to ______ factors
attitude is to behavior.
prejudice is to discrimination as
less likely in patients given stress-management training
A second heart attack is
a stress reaction to life events
according to holmes and rache, a person with a higher score on the social readjustment rating scale is more likely than a people with lower scores to have what kind of experience in the near future.
experience vicarious traumatizing.
a danger posed by watching repeated news broadcasts of a tragedy is that a person will
high levels of hardiness.
A person who has _______ is likely to cope well during stress since this person sees the stressor as a challenge.
the fourth wave; examines what gives our lives meaning and purpose -- how we can move beyond surviving to flourishing.
an optimal state in which the individual is fully immersed within an activity, experiences high levels of focus and control, and enjoys being successful at the task they are performing.... synonymous with "being in the zone."
a form of motivation.
nine dimensions of flow
- balance between skill and difficulty of the task
- clear goals
- action and awareness merge
- sense of control
-distortion of time
- concentration on the task at hand.
- loss of self-consciousness
initiating, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities.
desire to engage in an activity for its own sake.
desire to engage in an activity to achieve an external consequence.
when intrinsic rewards for tasks are replaced by extrinsic rewards. it can be avoided when extrinsic rewards are tied to quality of performance.
little skill, high difficulty.
high skill, little difficulty
empirical relationship between arousal and performance. The law dictates that performance increases with psychological or mental arousal, but only up to a point.
activities that are enjoyable for their own sake
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Low n Ach
Less risk taking
high n Ach
self determined goals
goals linked to perceived abilities
produces a psychological motive to excel or to reach a certain goal.
A view that explains human behavior as motivated by automatic, involuntary, and unlearned responses.
Fixed Action Patterns
genetically based behaviors, seen across a species, that can be set off by a specific stimulus
the belief that behavior is motivated by drives that arise from biological needs that demand satisfaction
the body's tendency to maintain a biologically balanced conditioned.
Freudian theory that unconscious forces determine behavior
a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. It operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
destruction aggressive desire both thoughts of as instinct.
focused on explaining behaviors associated with mental disorders
some agreement on development and sex and aggression. The later replaced by reproduction and survival
hierarchy of needs
the notion that needs occur in priority order, with the biological needs as the most basic.
Maslow's Humanistic Needs
immediate physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-acutalization.
adaptive function in terms of organism's survival and reproduction.
stimuli in environment... that can change motivational priorities.
changes in developmental progress that changes motivational priorities.