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Social Psychology, Chapters 11, 12 and 13
Terms in this set (61)
The Need to Belong
a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions
forming relationships with other people fulfills a number of basic human needs:
Social Attachments enhance survival.
People are motivated to form relationships with others
Relationships consume much of life
People resist the dissolution of relationships
People experience pain with lonely or rejected
the tendency for individuals to form interpersonal relations with those who are close by
"functional distance" - how often people's paths cross
The finding that the more we see and interact with people. the more likely they are to become our friends
Anticipation of Inter
Anticipating interaction boosts liking
Adaptive, leads to better relationships, and to happier, more productive living
mere exposure effect
The tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them.
Exposure without conscious awareness also leads to liking
physical attractiveness stereotype
What is beautiful is good
The presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well
We guess beautiful people are happier, sexually warmer, and more outgoing, intelligent, and successful
Attractive women are judged as more agreeable, open, outgoing, ambitious, and emotionally stable
We are eager to bond with attractive people
Children learn the stereotype quite early
Likeness begets liking
The more similar someone's attitudes are to your own, the more you will like the person
Dissimilarity breeds dislike
Dissimilar attitudes depress liking more than similar attitudes enhance it
people like others better when they believe the other person likes them
reward theory of attraction
the theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events.
Also explains some influences on attraction:
A state of intense longing for union with another.
Passionate lovers are absorbed into each other, feel ecstatic at attaining their partner's love, and are disconsolate on losing it.
Emotional, exciting and intense.
Experienced when "in love" with someone.
the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined.
Occurs after passionate love fades
The importance of other factors, such as shared values grow
Can last a lifetime
rooted in trust and marked by intimacy.
Their relationships tend to be satisfying and enduring
attachments marked by discomfort over, or resistance to, being close to others.
Less invested in relationships, avoiding closeness
attachments marked by anxiety or ambivalence. an insecure attachment style
Clinging, then indifferent or hostile
Less trusting, more fretful of partner becoming interested in someone else.
More possessive and jealous.
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
Equity outcome needn't always to be equal outcomes
as people observe their partners being self-giving, their sense of trust grows
Perceived equity and satisfaction
those who perceive inequity feel distressed and depressed
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
We like those who disclose, and we disclose to those whom we like
the tendency for one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner.
The most self-revealing dating and married couples tend to enjoy the most satisfying and enduring relationships
Rates varied widely by country.
Individualistic cultures have more divorce than do collectivistic cultures.
Those who enter a relationship with a long-term orientation and an intention to persist do experience healthier, less turbulent, and more durable partnerships
Relationships can be rooted in fear of the termination cost, a sense of moral obligation and inattention to possible alternative partners.
People usually stay married if:
Both grew up in a stable, two-parent homes.
Dated for a long while before marriage.
Are well and similarly education.
Enjoy a stable income from a good job.
Live in a small town or on a farm.
Do not cohabit or become pregnant before marriage.
Are religiously committed.
Are of similar age, faith and education.
a motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interests
A self-serving motive (supposedly underlying all behavior) to increase one's own welfare.
The opposite of altruism, which aims to increase another's welfare.
social exchange theory
the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's rewards and minimize one's costs
Rewards (Social Exchange Theory)
Internal or External
Public generosity boosts one's status
Selfish behavior can lead to punishment
Making donations activates brain areas linked with reward
Generous people are happier than those whose spending is self-focused
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
Helping is closely tied to attribution
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
Helps define the Social Capital - the supportive connections, information flow, trust, and cooperative actions - that keep a community healthy.
When people cannot reciprocate, they may feel threatened and demeaned by accepting aid.
gender and receiving help
Women offer help equally to males and females
Men offer more help when the persons in need are women
Women also seek more help
the idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one's close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes.
Genetic relatedness predicts helping.
We are also biased to be more helpful to those who look similar to us.
the vicarious experience of another's feelings; putting oneself in another's shoes.
Motivates us to help others for their own sakes.
The finding that the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help
steps to helping in an emergency
Notice the Event
Interpret the event as an emergency
Know appropriate form of assistance
Intervene and offer assistance
Factors that increase the likelihood of helping
Helping when someone else does
Time Pressures (people seldom stor to help if late for an important appointment)
-We tend to help those whom we perceive as being similar to us.
-People in all cultures are more likely to help someone they define as a member of their in-group
-People everywhere are less likely to help someone they perceive to be a member of an out-group.
regarding others as within one's circle of moral concern
religiosity and helping
Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism all teach compassion and charity
Religious priming increases "good behaviors"
- "Religion" primes helpfulness toward ingroup members
- "God" primes helpfulness toward outgroup members
Intrinsically religious people are only slightly more likely to engage in spontaneous helping
Religious faith better predicts altruism when making intentional choices about long-term helping
Prosocial effect of religiosity is strongest in countries in which religious behavior is a matter of personal choice
-real life modeling
If we see or read about someone helping, we become more likely to offer assistance
Family and friends teach the norm of helping and caring for others
Prosocial TV models have a strong effect in prosocial behavior, typically altruism
Studies show positive effects on attitude or behavior from prosocial media, including prosocial video games and listening to prosocial music lyrics
the perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which one applies moral values and rules of fairness
- Justifies all sorts of harm
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
Signifies involvement, commitment, and caring
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
Individually rewarding choices become collectively punishing
a condition marked by low levels of hostility and aggression and by mutually beneficial relationships.
- The outcome of a creatively managed conflict
- Parties reconciling their perceived differences and reaching genuine accord.
Tragedy of the Commons
The "commons" is any shared resource, including air, water, energy sources, and food supplies.
The tragedy occurs when individuals consume more than their share, with the cost of their doing so dispersed among all, causing the ultimate collapse—the tragedy—of the commons.
Everybody's business (conservation) becomes nobody's business
The "prisoner's dilemma"
1. If prisoner A confesses and prisoner B doesn't, the DA will grant immunity to A and will use A's confession to convict B of a maximum offense (and vice versa if B confesses and A doesn't)
2. If both confess, each will receive a moderate sentence
3. If neither confesses, each will be convicted of a lesser crime and receive a light sentence
Mirrors many conflicts in everyday life
In order to reach a resolution, people must trust each other
fundamental attribution error
People explain their own behavior situationally.
People explain their partners behavior dispositionally
At first people are eager to make some easy money
Then Minimize their losses
Finally to save face and avoid defeat
outcomes need not sum to zero Games
Games in which outcomes need not sum zero
With cooperation, both can win
with competition, both can lose
Hostilities often arise when groups compete for scarce jobs, housing, or resources
Negative images of the outgroup
Strong ingroup cohesiveness
resolving social dilemmas
-regulations to safeguard the common good
-Small is Beautiful, in small commons, each person feels more responsible and effective. People also feel more identified with the group's success.
-communication enables cooperation in the face of a dilemma. Communication reduces mistrust.
-Change the payoffs. Reward cooperation; punish exploitation
Appealing to Altruistic Norms. Through the influence of a charismatic lead who inspires others to cooperate. By defining situation in a way that invoke cooperative norms.
Muzafer Sherif's Conformity Study
Used the autokinetic effect to study conformity in which he evaluated the concept of norm formation.
- had subjects alone in a dark room estimate the amount of movement of a point of light.
-then, he brought the subjects together and had them, as a group, estimate the amount of movement.
-The subject's solitary estimates changed so that the group agreed on the amount of movement.
- individuals conformed to the group- their judgements converged on some group norm.
People perceive justice as equity - the distribution of rewards in proportion to individuals' contributions.
If one contributes more and benefits less, he will feel exploited.
Common External Threats
Those mistreated become more cohesive.
Having a common enemy unites competing groups.
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
A goal that overrides people's differences from another.
Working cooperatively has especially favorably effects under conditions that lead people to define a new, inclusive group that dissolves their former subgroups
Successful cooperation between 2 groups boosts their attraction for each other
If previously conflicting groups fail in a cooperative effort, and if conditions allow them to attribute failure to each other, the conflict may worsen
Does Contact Predict Attitudes?
- Contact predicts tolerance
- Increased contact predicts decreased prejudice
- "the extended-contact effect"
Does Desegregation Improve Racial Attitudes?
- White's attitudes toward Blacks improved markedly
When Does Desegregation Improve Racial Attitudes?
- Equal-status contact
- Contact on an equal basis
resolution of a conflict by a neutral third party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement
- Final-offer arbitration
- Motivates each party to make a reasonable proposal
Students at schools with interracial "learning teams" have more positive racial attitudes
Group and Superordinate Identities
In everyday life, we often reconcile multiple identities
We acknowledge our subgroup identity and then transcend it
People might have a "bicultural" or "omnicultural" identity
Multiculturalism versus assimilation
"diversity within unity"
seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation between parties
Tough bargaining may lower the other party's expectations
But can sometimes backfire
an attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions
- Turning win-lose into win-win
Integrative agreements - win-win agreements that reconcile both parties' interests to their mutual benefit
- Unraveling misperceptions with controlled communications
Communication often helps reduces self-fulfilling misperceptions
Trust is a key factor
Mediator will seek to increase empathy
Acronym for "graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction"
A strategy designed to de-escalate international tensions
Requires one side to initiate a few small de-escalatory actions, after announcing a conciliatory intent
Each side maintains retaliatory capability
Negotiators should be firm, fair, and friendly
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