Terms in this set (50)
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Created in 1939. A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other. Hitler and Joseph Stalin agreed not to attack each other but divided Poland for an easy win, but Germany didn't keep true to their word and attacked Stalin later
Feb 4th-11th, 1945. Meeting with the big 3 aka FDR, Stalin, and Churchill. The purpose of this meeting was to set the stage for a post war world, while avoiding using the term "spheres of influence," although it guided negotiations. The main issue was when the Soviets would enter the pacific war
July 17th-August 2nd 1945. the place at which the three allied leaders, Truman, Stalin, and Churchill. They met to discuss the distribution of Germany, who had recently been defeated, and the ultimatum that they would issue to Japan demanding thier immediate surrender.
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
spheres of influence
Areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China). However, this violated the spirit of the Atlantic charter of 1941 (collective action and self determination). US was a sphere of influence in latin america and the pacific and britian in africa and the middle east (aka their former colonies), as well as USSR in eastern europe.
Had the "long telegram" in feb of 1945. This was an 8,000 word telegram dispatched to washington. It was the basis of US strategy agaisnt the Soviet Union and argued that Moscow's aggressive behavior agter the war ended was not a result of anything the west did.
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey. This effort was a way of containment, because the US feared other nations would fall to communism through the domino theory
June 5th 1947. European Recovery Act committed US to the full reconstruction of Europe. This was significant because that was where WW2 had been fought, and the United States had received little damage on its home front.
Line that divided Korea - Soviet Union occupied the north and United States occupied the south, following ww2. However this was not effective because on june 25th 1950 north korea (communist) invases south korea.
law passed in 1944 to reward members of armed services. It helped returning veterans with buying homes, getting an education, receiving loans for homes/ businesses, and ensured medical aid/therapy. This was enacted to prevent widespread unemployment that had been seen following previous wars. This was beneficial because it impacted a large majority of the population but on the downside it had limitations because many people contributed to war effort but were not in armed services, excluded women who worked in factories, female veterans got paid less and had to prove they didnt have a male breadwinner, widows didnt originally get money and there was racial discrimination and white upper class males benefitted the most.
a program created in 1947 by Truman through executive order 9835 or the deferal employee loyalty program. This allowed the firing of anyone that was a deemed a security risk because of their political preference (aka communists) as well as targeting homosexuals in government (known as the lavendar scare). The attorney general had a list of subversive organizations.
In 1947-48 the House of Un-American Activities Committiee investigated Hollywood in search of Communists following the red scare. The hollywood ten was a group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in Hollywood.
Televised exchange in 1959 between Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and American Richard Nixon. Meeting at the American National Exhibition in Moscow, the two leaders sparred over the relative merits of capitalist consumer culture versus Soviet state planning. Nixon won applause for his staunch defense of American capitalism, helping lead him to the Republican nomination for president in 1960.
Interstate Highway Act
1956 Eisenhower 20 yr plan to build 41,000 mi of highway, largest public works project in history. This was part of the federal government's encouragement of suburban growth, which was unfortunately limited to whites only. In addition, it was a way to decentralize during the cold war, and had the catchy slogan of: defense through decentralization. By getting people out of one area it would ensure that a city wasnt targeted during the war. The real reason for this act was the threat of an atomic bomb threat. In addition, defense industries began being built in suburbia.
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. It revolutionized the way houses are built, and provided affordability because there was no diversity in the houses. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
a sexologist in the 1950s with very controversial findings and opinions on the sexual culture. He found that people weren't conforming to traditional values, seen specifically in Playboy popularity, which celebrated a bachelor lifestyle for the first time in history. His results were scandalous as he found a majority of both males and females were participating in pre marital sex and masturbation. As a result, people felt pressured to get married younger to avoid such scanadlous behavior.
A leading member of the Beat movement whose writings featured existential mania for intense experience and frantic motion. The beat generation was part of the rebellion and youth culture who didn't conform to society and experienced with recreational drugs, Zen Buddhism and jazz.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated. This was led by the NAACP (national association for the advancement of colored people). Unfortunately, it did not say how soon schools had to desegrate, leaving it up to them to decide when.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus. This resulted in the emergence of Dr. Martin L. King, as well as african american women. MLK Jr. led a boycott of city busses and after 13 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Long Civil Rights Movement
Resulted from a Black Popular Front during the 1930s and 40s and was the idea that the movement for civil rights actually started earlier than conventionally taught and includes the importance of 1930's activism. Post-WWII eras of civil rights were full of unequal distribution of federal resources and policies along with consistent segregation and exploitation, both in the South and the North. It was an economic and labor based agenda with focuses on civil rights unionism.
The manifesto was a document written by legislators opposed to integration. Most of the signatures came from Southern Democrats, showing that they would stand in the way of integration, leading to another split/shift in the Democratic Party. this opposition from Southern congressmen was due to the decision in Brown v. Board of Education.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism. This organization formed in 1960 and participated in sit ins, begining in Greensboro North Carolina and freedom rides of 1961, which tested the 1960 decision of boynton v. virginia (african american sat in white reserved section and was arrested and filed that his rights were infringed on but it was dismissed)
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote. Significant because whites and blacks were working together. Also experienced freedom schools and the mississippi freedom democratic party at this time. However, in june of this year the nation experienced the abudction and muder of 3 men.
An American senator for Arizona who ran against Johnson for president. He was of the conservative wing of the republican party. His platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964. However, he lost by largest margin in history
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program during the Great Society in the 1960's. Grew from his belief that no one should be poor in an age of affluence. He works to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly through things like medicaid and medicare.
Students for a Democratic Society
Founded in 1962, the SDS was the largest national organization of left-winged students. This popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s. It claimed that universities were not authentic and felt that they were being trained to go to big corporate businesses.
Berkeley Free Speech Movement
1964-1965 students insisted that the university administration lift a ban on on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students right to free speech and academic freedom. they believed that university is too conservative. It resulted in both parties banning together against the univesity in search for freedom of speech
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam. In 1941 he founded the Viet Minh, which were the vietnamese league for independence. used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist.
Geneva Accords, 1954
a 1954 peace agreement between Ho Chi Minh's communists and the French after the French loss at Dien Bien Phu that divided Vietnam into communist-controlled North and non-communist South at the 17th parallel until the 1956 election. Diem cancelled the elections when he realized the communists would win, further escalating the violence.
A South Vietnamese Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam. the communist rebels trying to overthrow South Vietnam's government
Operation Rolling Thunder
Escalation of the vietnam war by LBJ who authorized A bombing campaign in 1956. relentlessly bombed Viet Cong-occupied land, decimating the landscape of hundreds of miles of land. However, failed to destroy network of tunnels the guerrilla soldiers had built and therefore could not stop the Viet Cong from continuing to press on. Although troop presence had increased from 200,000 to 500,000 between 1965 and 1967, only 59,000 Americans were killed, which was a minor loss compared to WW2 and the 3 million vietnamese, 2/3 who were simply civilians.
Cu Chi Tunnels
Underground tunnels that were used by Viet Cong soldiers to hide, communicate, and move supplies. This was successful because it allowed for surprise attacks on US forces. Cu Chi tunnels outside Ho Chi Minh city allowed the entire city to go underground for 7 years.
The Củ Chi tunnels were the location of several military campaigns during the Vietnam War, and were the Viet Cong's base of operations for the Tết Offensive in 1968.
1968, during Tet, the Vietnam lunar new year - Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army attacked provincial capitals throughout Vietnam, even seizing the U.S. embassy for a time. This surprised the US soldiers who expected them to be celebrating instead of attacking. They had undermined the public support for war.
At Columbia University in 1968:
a student strike shut down the campus that lasted from april 23rd- april 30th in which students nonviolently occupied 5 buildings on campus, protesting things like scientists, rotc, military recruitment on campus and other things that contributed to the war effort
represented the Democratic party in the 1968 presidential election. He was popular with college students because he was an anti war candidate
Was a result of civil rights militancy. A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community. Differed from Martin Luther King Jr. because Malcolm X utilized violence as a way to obtain his goals. SNC embraced black power in 1966. The black panther party for self defense (1966) also formed under this thinking.
National Organization for Women
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. liberal feminism was reform oriented and worked through the system ti achieve changes, such as in policy and law. Unique because it included men
a form of radical feminism that formed out of the sexism of the civil rights movement and new left.
the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
1968 Democratic National Convention
Candidates at the DNC were hubert humphrey, eugene mccarthy, and richard daly. However, Mayor Daly gave police permission to open fire on protesters, leaving the democrats divided and the party left in utter ruins. This created a violent unrest in the united states and contributed to the election of nixon
what Nixon campaigned on in the 1968 election. This meant focusing on "ordinary people" or the so-called middle america.
1919-1998. Four time governor of Alabama. Most famous for his pro-segregation attitude and as a symbol for states' rights. Independent candidate in the 1968 election. he connects race with inteelect and wishes for a realignment of the south
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces. He was able to reduce the number of US troops by training and equiping the south vietnamese so they have more combat and it takes less damage on the US front. Although this appeared to be de-escalatio, in addition to the abolishment of the draft, Nixon was actually escalating the war through secret bombings on cambodia and an invasion of laos.
was a result of the Strategic Arms Limitations Talk betweem the USSR and US. It meant peaceful coexistence and encourged the relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment.
OPEC oil crisis
OPEC was the organization of petroleum exporting countries and the crisis evolved in 1973 when they announced they were not going to be shipping oil to any nations that supported Israel, which included the US. In addition, it also raised oil prices, and many gas stations at the time did not actually have gas.
collective term used for a variety of Christian groups that support socially conservative policies (such as opposition to therapeutic abortion or divorce). They were formed on the basis of family "value" issues which included re-implementing prayer in school, feminism/ abortion, and homosexuality
A term used mainly in the United States to label right-wing Christian political factions that are characterized by their strong support of socially conservative policies.
1970s; a new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s.
She opposed feminism and the equal rights amendment, claiming that they were taking women's privileges
Anti-feminist who led the campaign to defeat the ERA claiming it would undermine the american family
reluctance to use military force abroad because of the psychological trauma caused by different aspects of the Vietnam War