Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Endo Met 3
Terms in this set (31)
Fatty Liver Disease
name for liver damage caused by chronic excess alcohol consumption (AFLD) or prolonged metabolic dysregulation (NAFLD). Extrahepatic factors leading to this are obesity, prolonged excess fat intake, and prolonged excess carbohydrate intake. Intrahepatic factors include insulin resistance, inflammation and dyslipidemia.
term for enlarged liver. This is only seen at late-stage liver disease. When patients have this, physicians can palpate the abdomen and feel it in the exam (abdominal tenderness associated with this).
swelling and bulging out of the abdomen due to fluid build-up.
term for scarred liver. This can eventually lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (5-10 % in Western population).
symptoms of liver disease characterized by yellowing of the sclera (white part) of the eyes and skin due to excess bilirubin in the body. This is seen in newborns whose livers are underdeveloped (can be treated with UV light to break down bilirubin), patients with malaria, patients with viruses that attack their liver, and patients with fatty liver disease. The three main causes are hemolytic anemia (RBC destruction), heptocellular disease, and cholestatic disease (impaired GI tract bilirubin release.
tool used to determine the alertness/comatose state of a patient; can be used for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. It uses criteria such as eye opening, verbal response and motor response.
metabolite of heme that can cause jaundice when in excess in the body. Normal level is ~1.1mg/dL in blood; >2.5mg/dL results in jaundice
basic dye that stains the acidic nuclei of hepatocytes blue.
acidic stain that stains the alkaline cytoplasms of hepatocytes pink.
pathological condition characterized by accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. Wen looking at a liver biopsy sample slide in a patient with this, white holes are seen, which indicate the presence of lipid droplets in the liver. These droplets cause damage to the liver over time, and can trigger fibrosis (scarring) of the liver.
enlarged vein that can burst and leark; seen via endoscopy in esophagus and stomach of patients with portal hypertension.
term for flapping tremor
structural manifestation of liver cells that results from severe cell injury and precedes to cell death. Hepatocytes in this state are 2-3 times too swollen. This can be used as a marker to assess liver disease progression. This is present in NASH but is not necessarily pathognomonic (not defining factor for NASH, but correlates with it).
inflammation of the liver as a result of triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes. This can be caused by prolonged hyperglycemia or dyslipidemia, as glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Can be classified as metabolic/non-alcoholic (NASH) or alcoholic (ASH)
used to grade severity of the NASH based on steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning around central veins, and lobular inflammation seen in cell tissue sample slides.
hypoalbuminemia exacerbates ascites
adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue composed of: (fat cells)
Adipose tissue composition
made of preadipocytes (fat cell precursors), fibroblasts (connective tissue cells), vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages
Adipose tissue function
energy storage, insulation, cushioning, lipo-soluble vitamin storage, secretion of adipokines
brown adipose tissue
three main cell types of innate immunity
neutrophil, monocytes, macrophages
Mononuclear Phagocytes Function 1
Recruitment to the sites of infection
Mononuclear Phagocytes Function 2
Activation by microbes
Mononuclear Phagocytes Function 3
Phagocytosis of microbes
Mononuclear Phagocytes Function 4
Destruction of microbes
Mononuclear Phagocytes Function 5
Cytokine secretion to promote or regulate immune reponses
one cytokine produces multiple effects
more than one cytokine induces same effect
2+ cytokines work together to induce an effect greater than additive effect of individuals
one cytokine inactivates effect of another
action of one cytokine on target cell induces that cell to produce 1+ additional cytokines
Sets with similar terms
Hagen Chapter 9 Liver
Infection, Inflammation, and Cirrhosis of the Live…
Week 5: Hepatic disease
Other sets by this creator
Personality and Behavior-4
Social Structures and Interactions-2