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Psychology Quiz 7
Terms in this set (62)
The term used to describe the mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge is:
Dr. Roberto investigates how the mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge develop over the human lifespan. Dr. Roberto's area of research is:
How we use our cognitive abilities and accumulated knowledge to think, solve problems, and use language are all key dimensions of:
Thinking often involves the manipulation of two forms of mental representations:
concepts and mental images.
The psychological process that involves manipulating mental representations of information in order to draw inferences and conclusions is called:
As part of his homework assignment, Kenny memorized the names of all the planets in the solar system, learned the distance between the Earth and the Sun, decided what items he still needed to research in the library, and spent some time daydreaming about space travel. In the most general sense, Kenny was engaged in:
can involve any of the senses, including sounds, smells, and textures.
While Mary was reading a story about the Australian outback adventures of Billy and his dog, she had no problem visualizing the arid countryside, the unusual animals that lived there, and the various people that Billy and his dog met in their journeys. Mary is using:
A mental representation of objects or events that are not physically present is called a(n):
Joseph is trying to select a new couch for his living room. As he looks at each couch at the furniture store, he tries to visualize how it would look in his living room at home. Joseph is using _____ to help him determine which couch to buy.
The Focus on Neuroscience box, "Seeing Faces and Places in the Mind's Eye," reported on an fMRI study of mental imagery. In comparing perception and imagery, the researchers found that:
compared to imagining a face or place, perceiving a face or place evoked a stronger brain response.
The Focus on Neuroscience box, "Seeing Faces and Places in the Mind's Eye," reported on an fMRI study of mental imagery. From simply looking at the brain scan images, the researchers were able to determine whether the research participants were:
imagining a face or a place.
The mental categories we have formed to group objects, events, or situations that share similar features or characteristics are called:
Which of the following is NOT true about concepts?
Formal concepts are much easier to acquire than natural concepts because they are formed automatically through everyday experiences.
Formal concept is to _____ as natural concept is to _____.
defining rules and features; everyday experience
When we form a concept by learning the rules or features that define a particular concept, it is called a(n) _____ concept.
A natural concept is:
a mental category that is formed as the result of everyday experience.
Which of the following BEST defines a formal concept?
a mental category that is formed by learning the rules or features that define it
A concept that is formed as a result of everyday experience, rather than by learning strict rules or features, is called a(n) _____ concept.
In his chemistry class Milton learned the rules and features used for classifying certain chemical compounds. Milton has learned a(n) _____ concept.
With virtually no hesitation you can say that pigs, sheep, and cows are all examples of the concept of mammal, but you may hesitate a few seconds before deciding whether bats and porpoises are also mammals. This suggests that pigs, sheep, and cows are _____ of the concept mammal.
When Hillary was asked what comes to mind in response to the word "animal," she immediately said "horse." For Hillary, "horse" is a(n) _____ of the category "animal."
Rachel took longer to agree with the statement "an ostrich is a bird" than the statement "a crow is a bird," because for Rachel an ostrich is dissimilar to her _____ of the category "bird."
Which of the following BEST defines a prototype?
the most typical instance of a particular concept
Our memories of individual instances of a particular concept are called:
Thinking and behavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available is called:
Problem solving is defined as:
thinking and behavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available.
Trial and error is defined as:
a problem-solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do not work.
Dr. Milovitch systematically mixed thousands of different combinations of chemical compounds in order to find one that would be a pollution-free refrigerator coolant. Dr. Milovitch's approach best illustrates:
trial-and-error problem solving.
When LaToya got her new computer, she carefully followed the steps described in the manual, and by the end of the evening her new computer was up and running. LaToya used:
In problem solving, an algorithm is defined as:
a problem-solving strategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure, or method, which inevitably produces the correct solution.
When there is a limited range of possible solutions, _____ can be a useful problem-solving strategy.
trial and error
Which of the following is the BEST definition of heuristic?
a problem-solving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions
Kip is a professional auto mechanic whose hobby is restoring old cars. He picked up a classic Thunderbird convertible at an auction, but after spending several weekends tinkering with the engine, he still couldn't figure out what was wrong with it. As he was waking up one morning, he suddenly realized what the problem was. Kip's sudden realization of the problem's solution is an example of:
Insight is defined as:
the sudden realization of how a problem can be solved.
The process of coming to a conclusion or making a judgment without conscious awareness of the thought processes involved is called:
An intuitive hunch is most likely to be accurate when:
you already have a broad base knowledge and experience in the given area.
Functional fixedness is defined as:
the tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual or customary way.
A mental set is defined as the:
tendency to persist in solving problems with solutions that have worked in the past.
A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated on the basis of how easily we can remember other instances of the event is called the:
A strategy in which the likelihood of an event is estimated by comparing how similar it is to the typical prototype of the event is a definition of:
the representativeness heuristic.
After media coverage of two spectacular train crashes, people overestimated the probability of being killed or injured in a train crash and exaggerated the dangers of train travel. This example illustrates:
the availability heuristic.
Which of the following is NOT one of the obstacles to logical thinking that accounts for the persistence of many unwarranted beliefs?
Many people were convinced that Ethan had psychic abilities after he identified the park where the body of a missing person was eventually found. However, they failed to take into account the hundreds of times he made predictions that were false. This example illustrates the:
fallacy of positive instances.
Kahal has very conservative political beliefs, and he prefers listening to radio talk shows and reading magazines that are consistent with his views. Kahal's tendency to search only for information and evidence that support his perspective illustrates the:
The _____ is the strong tendency to search for information or evidence that confirms a belief, while making little or no effort to search for information that might disprove the belief.
Students were amazed when Professor Diaz walked into class on the first day of the semester and correctly "sensed" that two people in his class of 23 were born on the same day. The tendency to think that it is very unlikely that two people in a class of 23 could share the same birthday is an example of the:
The _____ occurs when people accept only the evidence that conforms to their belief, rejecting or ignoring any evidence that does not.
People who are depressed usually do not accept the possibility that good things can happen to them or that they have control over good things happening to them. When good things do happen to depressed people, they dismiss, discount, or ignore them. This is an example of:
the belief-bias effect.
A system that combines arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of meaningful statements is a definition of:
Language is a highly structured system that follows specific rules for combining words. These rules are referred to as the _____ of a language.
A characteristic of human language is that we can communicate meaningfully about ideas, objects, and activities that are not physically present. This characteristic is called:
The linguistic relativity hypothesis is the idea that:
differences among languages cause differences in the thoughts and perceptions of their speakers.
A test designed to measure a person's level of knowledge, skill, or accomplishment in a particular area is called a(n):
A test designed to assess a person's capacity to benefit from education or training is called a(n):
Amy is applying for a job at a large multinational corporation. As part of the job application process she is given a test to see if she is suited to work in sales. This is an example of _____ testing.
Ali took a test that measured his level of knowledge, skills, and accomplishment in particular areas such as mathematics and writing ability. Ali took a(n) _____ test.
Which of the following is NOT a basic requirement of a good test design?
In Howard Gardner's theory, distinct forms of intelligence include:
linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist intelligence.
Psychologist Claude Steele coined the term _____ to refer to the belief that you might be evaluated in terms of a negative stereotype about a group to which you belong, especially when that belief creates anxiety or self-doubt.
According to research by Claude Steele and other psychologists, how does stereotype threat tend to impair performance?
Psychological distress, anxiety, and self-doubt interfere with thinking and problem-solving abilities.
Being motivated by a challenge and a personal sense of satisfaction is to _____ as being motivated by rewards such as money, grades, or fame is to _____.
intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation
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