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NBB 321 (Neuroendocrinology) FINAL exam
Terms in this set (131)
Organizational Hormone Influence
Occur during specific time changes
Permanently alter structure and function of organism
Effects may not be evident for years and not reversible
Involve changes in macro structure of CNS
period of intrauterine life
the time and events surrounding birth
immediately after birth
the process by which males and females develop distinct reproductive anatomy
Sexual Differentiation of reptiles
lizards and alligator sex diff.
turtle sex diff.
fish sexual differentiation
male aggression and display behavior keeps females from changing
removing males alters steroidogenic enzymes resulting in increase 11-ketotestosterone
this increases female aggression and leads to sex change
Catalina Gobi fish
male removed, big female present (least)
no male present, no big female (most)
enzyme that converts testosterone to estradiol
decrease in aromatase
more testosterone --> more aggression
leads to the increase in 11-ketotestosterone (the first predictor of sex change)
bird and mammal sex differentiation
sex chromosomes alter steroids and hormones
-Heterogamete determines sex
The sex (male or female) that produces two types of gametes with respect to sex chromosomes.
The sex (male or female) that produces gametes that are all alike with regard to sex chromosomes.
RESPONSIBLE FOR MALE SEX DIFF.
antigen on the Y chromosome which causes the indifferent gonad to differentiate into a testis. If it is not present, the indifferent gonad differentiates into an ovary.
sex determining region of the Y chromosome
Testis Determining Factor (TDF)
protein encoded by a gene in the (sex determining region Y) SRY that triggers testes formation
(sex glands) arise from bipotential primordium
organ or tissue at earliest stage of development
has two potential outcomes+
XX what becomes endocrine ovary?
gonad CORTEX development
XY what becomes endocrine testis?
gonad MEDULLARY development
What gender secretes more fetal androgen? (in both rats and rhesus monkeys)
mullerian and wolffian duct systems (males and females have both)
precursors to male internal structures
precursors to female internal structures
small projection on external surface; gives rise to external genitalia
-in fetus migrates ROSTRALLY away from anus under androgen stimulation
Distance between genital tubercle and anus is longer in...
...and shorter in females
Anogenital distance (AGD)
in rats midpoint of anus to genetalia
longer in males
shorter in females
In humans when are male/female genitals different?
pregnant Guinea Pig study - injected with TP on days 25-45 and looked at affects on offspring
(pp18 & 19)
some females genitally masculinized (hermaphrodites) and some were not (unmodified)
-had ovaries, but no vaginal opening - penis and scrotum
- overall found that homotypical behavior decreased after prenatal TP exposure and heterotypical behavior increased after prenatal TP exposure
- androgens received prenatally have organizing action on tissues mediating mating behavior
activates female sexual behavior
activates male sexual behavior
--> enhancement of HETEROTYPICAL behavior
Process by which exposure to androgens (male sex hormones) alters the brain, rendering it identifiably male
--> suppression of HOMOTYPICAL behavior
inhibition of female characteristics (male)
no defeminization (pp18)
shows HOMOTYPICAL behavior (female)
no masculinization (pp18)
NO heterotypical behavior (female)
Are male and female brains sexually differentiated?
Sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area
-larger in male rats
(Interstitial nuclei of anterior hypothalamus)
Smaller among women and homosexual men than among heterosexual men
bed nuclei of the stria terminalis
-larger in men
-difference only evident in adults
not masculinized, not defeminized
higher Mas. = lower fem.
more mounts = shorter heat duration
less mounts = longer heat duration
Masculinized/ not Defeminized
Bisexual (male and female behavior rates equivalent)
Not Masculinized/ Defeminized
Bisexuality in mammals
common - but only seen in one sex not both
-male bi: hamster, ferret
-female bi: rat, guinea pig
neonatal castration of male rats
prevents defeminization (allows lordosis)
-day 1 after high LQ
-day 20 after low LQ
neonatal estradiol on newborn F rats
very low LQ
Neonatal DHTP on newborn F rats
very high LQ
treatment of female rats masculinizes their genitalia and their behavior, but does not defeminize their behavior.
aromatase inhibitor --> blocks aromatization
highest LQ when ATD administered Pre&Neo natally - stops defeminization
Why aren't all female rats defeminized by mother's E prenatally?
defem. primarily occurs POSTnatally
alpha-fetoprotein binds to E and prevents it from entering cells
prevents masculinizes and defeminization
Estradiol or DHT alone
does not masculinize
Neonatal blocking of E
defeminizes but does not masculinize
T administered to adult F rats
will result in mounting - not affected by neonatal treatments
how many male upstream from position (2M, 0M)
sex of the two closest embryo (MFF, FFF, MFM)
LQ not affected by IUP
in F rats
Mounting percentage in F treated with TP
affected by IUP
female rabbit AGD increased when
higher number of close males in utero
Clitoral-Urethral meatus distance
distance from Clit to urethra
How was Clitoral-Urethral meatus distance involved in orgasms?
shorter distance = more orgasms
sex difference in SDN-POA appears neonatally
what does testosterone reduce in SDN-POA?
apoptosis (which is why its larger with more T)
males with major damage to POA show what?
effect of prenatal stress?
increases apoptosis in SDN-POA
-reduce defeminization (increase lordosis)
Steroid receptor co-activator
increases binding of estradiol (so less free floating)
-doesn't affect masculinization but reduces defem. (so mounts and increased LQ)
-reduces side of SDN
INAH3 in humans is homologous to what?
SDN-POA in rats
effects of PREnatal TP or DHT on defem. and masc. in females Guinea pigs (pp21)
androgrens alone masculinize (don't defem.)
--> estrogens necessary for defem.
--> compare effects to NEOnatal tratement in F rats (pp19)
Is aromatatization required to defem. rats, mice, hamsters?
YES (androgen receptors not involved)
Is aromatatization required to masc. rats, mice, hamsters?
YES (but androgen receptors necessary)
Is aromatatization required to defem. guinea pigs
YES (DHT doesn't defem)
Is aromatatization required to masc. guniea pigs
NO (DHT masculinizes) - AR only
Is aromatization required for defem. and and masc. in monkeys?
-prenatal TP and DHTP defeminized and masc. females
-NO aromatization req. (AR only)
-AR only needed to masculinize
-no evidence for defem. in humans
How might hormones produce sexually dimorphic behavior (Goy classification)
type 1 - Hormonal organization & activation (lordosis supress, male ejac.)
type 2 - Hormonal activation (rhesus yawn)
type 3 - Hormonal organization (dog urination)
type 4 - no hormones (dress)
Juvenile toy preference in humans
girls prefer "fem" toys, not as strongly as boys prefer "masc" toys
juvenile sex typical toy preference seen in...
both humans and rhesus
females interacted with infants more than males
sex segregated play
boys prefer boys and girls prefer girls
children's drawing difference
girls draw more feminine and boys more masculine
Peer only rearing
social condition of rhesus
separated from mother at birth
social condition of rhesus
live w/ mother 24/7 first year of life
30min of socializing daily after
social group rearing
24/7 access to all animals throughout life
rough & tumble play
how did each kind of social rearing affect R&T play, and foot-mount clasp in rhesus?
in all conditions males showed more
elevated female rigidity and passivity/ male agnosim NOT seen when...
peers have continuous social access
limited social rearing has what effect?
prenatal androgen treatment in rhesus
slightly increased R&T play and foot clasps
-late treatments increased R&T play
-treatments lasting longer than 25 days increased mounting
timing of prenatal andrgen in rhesus affected genetalia
-early treatments lasting 15 day or longer masculinized
-late treatments did nothing
long duration of prenatal TP in rhesus
masculinized genitals, R&T play, and mounting
early gestation prenatal TP (15 or 25 days) in rhesus
masculinized genitals, did NOT masculinize genitals, masculinized mounting after 25 days
late gestation TP treatment in rhesus
did NOT masculinize genitals, but masculinized rough play and mounting
***prenatal androgens and sexual development in group-living male and female rhesus monkeys
complex -don't feel like doing now
Infant Separation Rejection Vocalizations (SRV)
infant male = noisy scream
infant female = coos
mom retreived sons more than daughters
(Human sex diff!!) genotype
genetic comp. of individual
observable characteristics of an individual
male or female (traits directly linked to biological processes)
masculine or feminine
male, female, intersex
biologically determined through actions of genes
differs between the sexes
a characteristic of a species, in which males and females have different sexual forms
internal sense of one's sexual self
the sex one is attracted to
our sense of being male or female
gender role (sex role)
Expression of one's maleness or femaleness to both oneself and others.
gender role behavior
observable behavior associated with given gender identity and gender role
"strict biological determinist" explanation
males and females have different sex chromosomes which produce sexually differentiated bodies
-behavorial sex diff result from brain sex diff.
-social experience has no effect
"strict social construction" explanation
socialization (treating men and women diff) results in behavioral sex diff
(incomplete) - because there are some biological differences
biosocial interaction explanation
biological processes produce sexually differentiated bodies, predispositions, interactions with environment magnify or minimize these
Why more men than women in STEM?
Lawernce Summers proposed "different variability of aptitude at high end"
mostly overlapping distribution
-ratio of males to females in the top .01% (males still slightly higher)
-male and female advantages?
mental rotation task
largest sex diff of cognitive function (men can tell that theyre diff)
women slightly more proficient in...
verbal fluency and perceptual speed
twin study on mental rotation task
same sex female lowest accuracy, male of opposite twins highest
Is gender identity social construct?
Money case - john/joan?
proposed gender nutrality at birth
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