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Ch 8 & 9 neuro review
Terms in this set (21)
What are the two models used to explain neural control of balance
Refelx Hierarchical Model
Reflex Hierarchial Model
Proposes that postural control develops over time through reflex integration and increasing CNS control of movement.
Proposes that it is the interaction of several systems not just the CNS, as well as the details/skills of the task and the constraints of the environment that influences postural control and balance.
Components of the Reflex Hierarchial Model
Components of the Systems Model
Independent Maintenance of Sitting and standing
What are the components of Postural control and balance
Postural control and balance rely on the integrity of the muscles to make effeictive adjustments. To recover from change to the COM, full ROM and strength are required...what mechanism am I?
Organization of the production, coordination and grading of muscle forces are fundamental to the control of posture. Three factors contribute to this:
- postural alignment
- muscle tone
- postural tone
What mechanism am I?
Information received from three primary systems: visual, vestibular and somatosensory whose input directly affects postural control and balance. Information is redundant and permits a person to remain stable when one or more of these systems are unavailable...what mechanism am i?
Movement awareness and awareness of the body and its parts in relation to each other establishes orientation of the body to its environment..what mechanism am i?
Appropriate and intact arousal, attention, memory, judgement and decision making are necessary for a person to maintain postural stability and avoid injury...what mechanism am i?
Ways of organizing sensory input to alert the motor systems to make changes to the plan or execution of movement.
Automatic movements used to keep the COM over the base of support.
- Ankle strategy
- Hip Strategy
- Stepping Strategy
The most common adjustment to anterior-posterior sway, initiated from the ankles and feet
Head and hips moving in opposite directions to control posture and comes mainly from pelvis and trunk
Reaching with the arms to steady oneself that is used for very fast or large changes which results in realignment of the COM with the base of support using steps or hops in the direction of the change
Finger-to-palm and palm-to-finger translation
Moving an object from the fingertips to the palm or palm to finger tips
ex: moving a coin from your fingertips to your palm or your palm to your fingertips
Moving an object or adjusting an object on the fingertips
ex: Moving your fingers on your pencil to get an appropriate grip
Rolling an object along the fingertips which act as a unit to the opposed thumb
ex: screwing a cap onto a container of milk or spinning a top
Turing an object 180/360 degrees in the hand with the fingers stabilizing and the thumb rotating
ex: Turning a marker over to move the cap
Edema that begins in the hand
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