Leaves: Simple, alternate leaves; 2 to 3 inches long.
Dark green, triangular-shaped, shiny, pendulous leaves.
Margins are double serrated, leaf tip is long and pointed.
Yellow fall color.
Bark: Young trees have a reddish-brown color, older trees develop a chalky white bark that does not peel.
Black triangular patches form on bark, under branches.
Habitat: Grey birch can often be found with white birch and its associated species, again on dry sites, while bog birch lives up to its name, being found in acidic, boggy areas. It needs full sun to thrive and is usually surrounded by plants with similar tolerances - willow, rose, Labrador tea, larch and black spruce.
Leaves: The dark green leaves grow in an alternate arrangement, emerging from the stem one at a time. Yellow Birch leaves have a pointed tip and finely double-toothed edges. Young leaves are bronze-green, with long hairs beneath. In the fall, the leaves turn bright yellow.
Bark: Yellow Birch bark is bronze or yellowish-gray when the tree is young. The outer layers of the bark peel horizontally in thin, curly, papery strips. As the tree matures, the curls of peeling bark become more abundant and may appear shredded. Once the tree reaches about a foot in diameter, the bronze curls weather off, revealing a thick, platy outer bark, which is irregularly cracked.
Habitat: Most commonly found in moist woodland. Common on moist soil along stream banks, swamps, and slopes.
Leaves: Black Spruce needles are short - about half an inch long. The needles of the Black Spruce are attached individually to the branches, rather than in clusters. Black Spruce has needles around the entire radius of the branch. Black Spruce needles, like the needles of other spruce trees, are also very hard, making it easy to poke or stick yourself with them. Black Spruce needles needles have four sides, rather than two,
Bark: The bark of the Black Spruce is thin, scaly and dark greenish-brown.
Habitat: Black Spruce grows on both lowland and upland sites. In the southern parts of its range (including the Adirondack Mountains), Black Spruce is most abundant in wet habitats, such as peat bogs and swamps, but it may also be found on transitional sites between peat lands and uplands.
Leaves: This tree has clustered needles, growing five to a cluster. Each needle is three to five inches long, bluish green in color, and soft and flexible to the touch. The long, thin needles seem to whisper in the breeze.
Bark: The bark of the Eastern White Pine is gray to brown and develops large broad scales as the tree ages. On young trees, the bark is rather thin, smooth, and greenish-brown in color. On older trees, the bark becomes deeply fissured and dark grayish-brown in color. The cones are four to eight inches long and about one inch thick, with a pointed white tip.
Habitat: The Eastern White Pine grows in a wide variety of soils, ranging from light, sandy soils to heavy, textured soils. It occurs in a wide variety of wet to dry habitats, including mesic forests, successional fields, shrublands, lake edges, rises in bogs and marshes, and elsewhere. It can grow in nutritionally poor soil.