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rod shaped cell structures that direct the activities of a cell and passes on the traits of a cell to new cells


division of the cytoplasm, usually at the end of nuclear division.


gel-like substance in which all cellular components outside the nucleus are immersed.

daughter cell

one of two cells resulting from the division of a single cell.


a cell that contains two of each type of chromosome, such as a human somatic cell.


The loose and uncoiled form of DNA seen during interphase

G1 stage

first stage in interphase, during which cellular growth and development takes place

G2 stage

third stage of interphase during which organelle replication and protein synthesis takes place


reproductive cells; sperm and egg cells in animals.

hereditary material

the information which is passed from one cellular generation to the next (encoded in DNA in humans).

homologous chromosome

A member of a chromosome pair, both of which are similar in shape, size, and the genes they carry


the portion of the cell cycle where the cell is not dividing; includes G1, S and G2 stages.


the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the replicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the cell


process of cellular division in which the daughter cells are genetically identical to themselves and to the parent cell.


organelle in the center of the cell which contains the chromosomes.


the first stage of mitosis /meiosis in cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes and the dissolution of the nuclear envelope

replicated chromosomes

chromosomes which have undergone DNA replication and contain two sister chromatids.


second stage of interphase ; period of DNA replication.

sister chromatids

two identical copies of a parent chromosome which are attached to one another at the centromere.

somatic cell

any cell in the body that is not a germ cell (reproductive cell).

spindle fibers

protein structures which move the chromosomes during cell division.


the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes


A group of cells derived from a single ancestor.


the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the poles


specialized organelles that facilitate cell division


the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis

cleavage furrow

contractile ring of microfilaments in animal cell where the cell membrane is divided

cell plate

the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two


any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division

radiation therapy

treatment using x-rays to destroy cancerous tissue


the use of chemical agents to treat or control some types of cancer (destroys cells or prevents them from dividing)


cell division that occurs in sex cells in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.


the pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis


The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis

crossing over

exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis


The formation of haploid gametes (sperm or ova) via meiosis.


the meiotic process that results in the formation of eggs


the meiotic process that results in the formation of sperm cells

parent cell

original cell that divides to produce two new daughter cells during mitosis


genes when mutated, can cause cancer


cell containing half the number of chromosomes that the diploid parent contains


cells that contain two copies of every chromosome


chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual

sex chromosome

X or Y chromosome that carries the genes involved in determining the sex of an individual


a permanent change in the DNA molecule that can change the generic formation of a gene causing the gene to function improperly.

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (2n=46). How many chromatids do normal human cells have in Prophase |?

A cell in Prophase | is still diploid and there's a pair of chromatids for every chromosome. Since this cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes, or 46 chromosomes, there are 92 chromatids in the cell.

Does this apply to mitosis, meiosis, or both?
Each daughter cell receives an identical complement of chromosomes.


Does this apply to mitosis, meiosis, or both?
Daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent and to each other.


The fruit fly has a diploid number of 8 (2n=8). How many chromosomes are in a fruit fly spermatid?

A spermatid is a haploid cell, so the fruit fly spermatid will have 4 chromosomes.

Which of the following cells is a diploid? Gamete, zygote, first polar body, secondary spermatocyte?


During what phases of mitosis do chromosomes line up along the equatorial plane?


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