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51 terms

Chapter 14 - Cell Division

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chromosomes
rod shaped cell structures that direct the activities of a cell and passes on the traits of a cell to new cells
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm, usually at the end of nuclear division.
cytoplasm
gel-like substance in which all cellular components outside the nucleus are immersed.
daughter cell
one of two cells resulting from the division of a single cell.
diploid
a cell that contains two of each type of chromosome, such as a human somatic cell.
chromatin
The loose and uncoiled form of DNA seen during interphase
G1 stage
first stage in interphase, during which cellular growth and development takes place
G2 stage
third stage of interphase during which organelle replication and protein synthesis takes place
gametes
reproductive cells; sperm and egg cells in animals.
hereditary material
the information which is passed from one cellular generation to the next (encoded in DNA in humans).
homologous chromosome
A member of a chromosome pair, both of which are similar in shape, size, and the genes they carry
interphase
the portion of the cell cycle where the cell is not dividing; includes G1, S and G2 stages.
metaphase
the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the replicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the cell
mitosis
process of cellular division in which the daughter cells are genetically identical to themselves and to the parent cell.
nucleus
organelle in the center of the cell which contains the chromosomes.
prophase
the first stage of mitosis /meiosis in cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes and the dissolution of the nuclear envelope
replicated chromosomes
chromosomes which have undergone DNA replication and contain two sister chromatids.
S-phase
second stage of interphase ; period of DNA replication.
sister chromatids
two identical copies of a parent chromosome which are attached to one another at the centromere.
somatic cell
any cell in the body that is not a germ cell (reproductive cell).
spindle fibers
protein structures which move the chromosomes during cell division.
telophase
the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
clones
A group of cells derived from a single ancestor.
anaphase
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the poles
centrioles
specialized organelles that facilitate cell division
centromere
the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
cleavage furrow
contractile ring of microfilaments in animal cell where the cell membrane is divided
cell plate
the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two
cancer
any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division
radiation therapy
treatment using x-rays to destroy cancerous tissue
chemotherapy
the use of chemical agents to treat or control some types of cancer (destroys cells or prevents them from dividing)
meiosis
cell division that occurs in sex cells in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.
synapsis
the pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
disjunction
The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
crossing over
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
gametogenesis
The formation of haploid gametes (sperm or ova) via meiosis.
oogenesis
the meiotic process that results in the formation of eggs
spermatogenesis
the meiotic process that results in the formation of sperm cells
parent cell
original cell that divides to produce two new daughter cells during mitosis
oncogens
genes when mutated, can cause cancer
Haploid
cell containing half the number of chromosomes that the diploid parent contains
Diploid
cells that contain two copies of every chromosome
autosomes
chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual
sex chromosome
X or Y chromosome that carries the genes involved in determining the sex of an individual
mutation
a permanent change in the DNA molecule that can change the generic formation of a gene causing the gene to function improperly.
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (2n=46). How many chromatids do normal human cells have in Prophase |?
A cell in Prophase | is still diploid and there's a pair of chromatids for every chromosome. Since this cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes, or 46 chromosomes, there are 92 chromatids in the cell.
Does this apply to mitosis, meiosis, or both?
Each daughter cell receives an identical complement of chromosomes.
Mitosis
Does this apply to mitosis, meiosis, or both?
Daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent and to each other.
Mitosis
The fruit fly has a diploid number of 8 (2n=8). How many chromosomes are in a fruit fly spermatid?
A spermatid is a haploid cell, so the fruit fly spermatid will have 4 chromosomes.
Which of the following cells is a diploid? Gamete, zygote, first polar body, secondary spermatocyte?
Zygote
During what phases of mitosis do chromosomes line up along the equatorial plane?
Metaphase