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Final Exam (With Edits)
Terms in this set (53)
cultural policy of the Soviet Union during the Cold War period following World War II, calling for stricter government control of art and promoting an extreme anti-Western bias
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under Franc, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
Death of Stalin
March 5, 1953; prior to his death his paranoia was horrible and he had suffered a series of strokes and MIs.
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor
an elegy by Anna Akhmatova about suffering of people under the Great Purge. It was written over three decades, between 1935 and 1961. She carried it with her, redrafting, as she worked and lived in towns and cities across the Soviet Union. The set of poems was conspicuously absent from her collected works, given its explicit condemnation of the purges.
1956. Led by students and workers, installed Liberal Communist Imre Nagy. Forced soviet soldiers to leave and promised free election, renounced Hungary's military alliance with Moscow. Revolution was crushed by the Soviet Union.
Mourners crushed at Stalin's Funeral
There were so many people at Stalin's funeral that a good deal of people were crushed. Evgenii Evtushenko wrote that he was crushed against a young girl and could feel her bones snapping.
The Secret Speech
In February 1956, Khrushchev spoke to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Khrushchev's speech was sharply critical of the reign of the deceased General Secretary and Premier Joseph Stalin, particularly with respect to the purges which had especially marked the last years of the 1930s. Khrushchev charged Stalin with having fostered a leadership cult of personality despite ostensibly maintaining support for the ideals of communism. Khrushchev hoped to distinguish Lenin from Stalin, and claimed that the Stalinist regime was not only at fault, but the cult of personality which remained. He remarked that Stalin was not a true Marxist Leninist. This speech was a part of Khrushchev's efforts to "destalinize" the USSR.
Policy of Containment
President Truman published the Truman Doctrine after WWII; The U.S. would not fight communism where it already existed but would not allow it to spread to democratic countries. Implied American support for other nations allegedly threatened by Soviet communism.
(1890-1960) Russian author of Dr. Zhivago, a novel condemning the brutality of the Stalin era. translated Shakespeare during the 1930s. As Khrushchev drove a new course in loosening cultural controls during Destalinization, Pasternak tried to publish his newest work "Doctor Zhivago," but it was deemed "anti-Soviet" by a magazine and rejected. Got it published in Italian and won the Nobel Prize but was kicked out of the union of Russian writers and had to denounce the nobel prize.
first animal in space; USSR; a dog; Nov., 1957. marked one of the first signs of a space race between the USSR and US, as JFK famously said the US was in "a race for space we didn't know we were in." In June of 1961, Khrushchev met JFK and his wife, Jackie, in Vienna. Khrushchev was known for flirting with Jackie and even sent her a puppy as a gift. It turned out that the puppy was a descendant of Laika.
Soviet cosmonaut who in 1961 was the first person to travel in space (1934-1968). He was deemed a hero in the Soviet Union. While this was a remarkable feat for the Soviets and for the international space race, the Soviets had managed to suppress previous failures within space exploration. Moscow and other cities in the Soviet Union held mass demonstrations, the scale of which was second only to World War II Victory Parades. Gagarin was escorted in a long motorcade of high-ranking officials through the streets of Moscow to the Kremlin where, in a lavish ceremony, he was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, by Nikita Khrushchev.
American Exhibition at Sokolniki
As the Cold War era was beginning, the US and USSR tried to work together and exchange intelligence. In 1959, there was an American Exhibition at Sokolniki, which took a look at American life. Similar events had taken place in the United States. One of the most notable portions of the event was when Richard Nixon showed off an exhibit featuring an American kitchen. Nikita Khrushchev denied the American designs, claiming it was capitalist propaganda.
Building of the Berlin Wall
construction of Germany Democratic Republic on August 13th, 1961; , cuts off West Berlin
Cuban Missile Crisis
The 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba. The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war. In October 1962, US planes spotted Cuban military bases being prepared to take on Soviet missiles. The US set up a blockade around Cuba, preventing Soviet ships from coming in. The US was making hard enough stance that Khrushchev turned Soviet ships around
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Leader of Czechoslovakia who introduced liberal reforms and was ousted by the Soviets. The problem, he believed, was that the communist party was far too concentrated and not using its power correctly. Dubcek felt before his action program, all freedoms were under control of the communist party. He hoped to liberalize.
Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need. This doctrine was announced to retroactively justify the invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 that ended the Prague Spring, along with earlier Soviet military interventions, such as the invasion of Hungary in 1956.
Action Program of the Czechoslovakia Communist Party
1968; Political plan devised by Alexander Dubcek and his associates. The document was the basis for Prague spring and prompted the ensuing Warsaw pact invasion of the CSSR.
The Russian word for "connections," used to describe the prevalence of clientelism and interpersonal relationships in which favors are exchanged between elites, between elites and masses, and between members of the general population. Drove the black market in the 1980s.
"The Queue" by Vladimir Sorokin
Published in 1983, the text lacks description, setting, or stage direction. Instead it is filled with nothing but voices: snatches of conversation, rumors, jokes, howls of humor, roll calls, and sexy moans. a bizarrely funny saga of a quintessential Russian institution, the interminably long line.
a clandestine publishing system within the Soviet Union, by which forbidden or unpublishable literature was reproduced and circulated privately
a person who opposes official policy, especially that of an authoritarian state.
Soviet nuclear physicist, dissident and human rights activist. Sakharov was an advocate of civil liberties and reforms in the Soviet Union. Self published Samizdat. He believed Soviet society needed intellectual freedom to reach its full potential, and that without critical thought, you are susceptible to the cult of personality. Sakharov felt that Soviets were not communist anymore, and that oligarchy and its culture threatens freedom of thought.
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
After the Iranian Revolution of 1979 established an Islamic republic, concerns were raised that a theocratic revolution over religion could inspire Soviet republics with high Muslim populations. A coup then established a left socialist government in Afghanistan, which the USSR supported, but tribal right leaders then overthrew this Afghani government. On December 24, 1979, Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan to overthrow the tribal government and reassert a socialist government. The war lasted nearly 10 years, and the Soviets could not escape. It cost the Soviet Union millions of dollars. Intervention such as that in Afghanistan cause many countries, such as the United States, to boycott the Moscow Olympics.
A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry. Gorbachev's execution of Glasnost, however, was questioned quickly on after the April 1986 Chernobyl accident, and the Soviets only released any information after Swedish scientists detected signs of radiation. This cause Gorbachev to lose some support.
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
The worst nuclear accident of the 20th Century. On April 26, 1986 the No. 4 reactor at Chernobyl exploded and burned, sending a radioactive plume into the atmosphere that was 400 times more deadly than the one created by the bombing of Hiroshima. 56 deaths and indirectly 4,000 excess cancer deaths occurred.
Solidarity in Poland
1980; Led to the end of communism in Poland. Went on to play a central role in the demise of communism across the Soviet bloc, changing forever the course of history in Europe.
Gorbachev's 1988 Speech at the United Nations
1988; Delivered a speech to express support for the UN and to say that Russia will no longer use force or threat as an instrument for foreign policy. Attempt to improve western relations.
President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
Congress of People's Deputies
A new Soviet parliament that was called by Gorbachev and whose members were chosen in competitive elections. The Congress chose 450 members to deal with day to day activities.
Presidency of the soviet union
The Presidency was established in 1990 and the President would, according to the altered constitution, be elected by the Soviet people by direct and secret ballot. However, the first and only Soviet President, Mikhail Gorbachev, was elected by the democratically elected Congress of People's Deputies.
Presidency in Russia
Boris Yeltsin was the first president of Russia, Vladimir Putin was second and fourth, and Dmitry Medvedev was the third. His duties are listed in the Russian Constitution. Inauguration of the President of Russia is done six years after the last inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). Terms are 6 years long.
August 1991 attempted coup
1991; Hard line members of the communist party led by Yeltsin worked to remove power from Mikal Gorbachev. The coup lasted 2 days and was unsuccessful, but set the basis for Gorbachev's resignation and the dismantling of the USSR.
The Yeltsin Legacy
Abrupt move by Boris Yeltsin to a free market economy in Russia and the CIS; a way to force rapid shift to a market economy
When Regime change comes with a whimper
Article published regarding the collapse of the Soviet Union on 12/25/1991. Described as anticlimactic. "Regime change does not necessarily lead to a better regime." Author claims it sent the Russians into a dangerous unknown, similar to reactions to Stalin's death. It is much easier to destroy a regime than it is to construct a new one.
A conflict between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.
Attack on the Russian White House
1993; Yeltsin vs the Russian parliament. Yeltsin wanted to dissolve the congress of people's deputies and its supreme soviet, despite not having the power. The parliament impeached Yeltsin and military forces attacked the white house to take down the rebellion.
Yeltsin's 1996 Reelection campaign
1996; Yeltsin ran for election again and won despite his extremely low approval rates from the public. This is his last term and he ends up resigned for Putin to take power.
1999, the first time terror was on Russian soil. Happened in Moscow and Daegestan; 300 people died and many more were injured. The press blamed it on Chechen rebels, but John McCain said the attacks had a strong link to the FSB.
Six months before the end of his presidential term, Yeltsin announced his resignation and transferred power to Prime Minister Vladimir Putin on December 31, 1999. Yeltsin had been steadily declining, as he was in poor health and his drinking issues continued. The country was also struggling with hyperinflation, and Yeltsin's connection to corrupt oligarchs was potentially dangerous.
soviet leaders who seized control of formerly state owned enterprises after the collapse of the russian economy. contributed to the kelptocracy, rule of thieves
Moscow Theatre Siege
In 2002, 40 Chechen militants took 912 individuals hostage at a theatre in Moscow. After three days, security forces stormed the theatre, but nearly 130 hostages died. It is suspected that after security forces sent "sleeping gas" into the theatre in order to sedate suicide bombers, the hostages were not properly taken out of the theatre. It is suspected that many died as a result of side effects from these techniques, including perhaps choking on their own vomit. There, however, was no formal investigation into the deaths of these hostages.
Beslan Hostage Crisis
n September 2004, on the traditionally celebrated first day of school in Russia, 1,000 people were taken hostage by Chechen terrorists at a school in Beslan, North Ossetian. The siege was eventually brought to a violent end as 330 people were killed. More than ½ of those people were children. After the hostage crisis, fears of terrorism grew in Russia, and many became more concerned with the state of security. After Baslan, Putin cancelled regional governor elections, perhaps to prevent change in government at this time
an outspoken Russian journalist who was shot in 2006. She focused on violations of human rights in Chechnya SIG: lack of basic democratic freedoms like of the press in Russia. Anna was threatened, jailed, exposed and even poisoned during her journalistic career. Some think Putin was responsible for her death.
A former KGB officer who found evidence of Russian involvement in the 1999 bombings. He also made efforts to investigate the murder of Anna Politovskaya. After moving to London, Litvinenko was mysteriously poisoned with radiation in a hotel in London. Like Anna Politovskaya, Litvinenko was identified as a potential threat against Putin's administration and rule, given their efforts to expose issues within the Kremlin.
Prime Minister of Russia since 2012. Previously served as the third President of Russia. Place holder for Putin.
2008 attack on Georgia
a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.The war took place in August 2008 following a period of worsening relations between Russia and Georgia, both formerly constituent republics of the Soviet Union. The fighting took place in the strategically important Transcaucasia region. It was regarded as the first European war of the 21st century
planning for the bridge began in 2014, after the Russian annexation of Crimea. It is the longest bridge in Europe.
Annexation of Crimea
Pro-Russian demonstrations in Sevastopol; Russian troops take over Supreme Council of Crimea; pro-Russian government installed; declaration of independence drafted; disputed referendum held.Unfolded in aftermath of Ukrainian Revolution. Crimea had been part of Russia since the late 18th century.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Burnt by the sun phrases
Burnt by the Sun: Purges and examples in the Film
Burnt by the Sun: Theme of Personality cult
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