Arch Final Exam
Terms in this set (47)
what is the earliest type of pottery from the Eastern Woodlands?
swift creek pottery and stallings island pottery.
(Shell mounds where they added ideations into the pottery)
what are the three major areas of ritual expression during the Woodland period in Eastern North America?
1. Human burial and associated activities
2. Exotic raw materials and ritualized craft production
- Raw materials were not local
3. Monumental architecture
During the Late Archaic period, sedentism and population growth propelled what major change in Eastern Woodlands subsistence?
Sedentism: Transition from nomadic society to living in one place permanently.
Maize agriculture changed the Eastern Woodlands subsistence.
To what celestial body was the Hopewell earthworks at Newark, Ohio aligned?
What quality of maize made possible the
accumulation of surplus that is thought to have
driven the emergence of inequality during the Mississippian period?
Encourage greater commitment to sedentism and larger population concentrations (full fledged towns)
Storage ability -> surplus accumulation -> opportunities for creating social inequality between households and communities
What were/are kivas used for?
communal ritual buildings shown as the roots of ancestral and modern Pueblo culture.
What was the first and largest
What Puebloan site(s) in
southern Colorado, associated with room block villages built into cliffs ‐‐ was abandoned in AD 1300 after droughts and competition over resources
Mesa Verde, Colorado (cliff palace)
What do we call the suite of crops - mainly maize,
beans, and squash - domesticated in Mexico and adopted in the Southwest between 800 BC and AD 600?
What culture is known as the master irrigators of the Southwest?
What raw material is thought to have been
retrieved in "one-shot" by an expedition of
Hopewell travelers from Ohio to Wyoming and back again?
How many plant crops - both domesticated
and cultivated - are included in the Eastern Agricultural Complex?
- Cucurbita pepo (squash)
- Helianthus Annuus (sunflower)
- Iva annua (sumpweed)
- Chenopodium berlandieri (goosefoot)
- Polygonum erectum (erect knotweed)
- Little barley
- Giant ragweed
What are two lines of evidence for the appearance of maize agriculture during the Mississippian period?
- Charred maize in houses and pits
- Stable isotope signatures in human bones
What Early Woodland tradition is associated with conical burial mounds and small geometric enclosures called sacred circles?
What construction signified a need for defense and the segregation of the elite at Cahokia ca. AD 1350?
cahokia palisade and Monk's Mound
The rise and fall of Mississippian polities at Cahokia, Moundville, and Etowah are illustrative of what pattern of political development common to chiefdoms worldwide?
What are two lines of evidence that suggest that violence played a role in shaking up the Southwestern landscape around AD 1200?
1. Environmental Explanation: Move to areas with predictable precipitation
- But, even with the drought, originally inhabited areas probably could have supported large populations
2. Warfare Explanation: Threat of violence (possibly related to scarce resources)
- Human remains with mortal wounds
- Burned habitation sites
- Unburied human remains
What type of residential architecture is associated with the earliest Basketmaker villages in the Southwest as well as later Mogollon and Hohokam communities?
Pit houses are associated with basketmaker villages
What Hohokam site includes a major residential occupation, mounds, ball courts, and over 10 miles of canals dating to AD 300‐1200?
Snaketown (Located south of Phoenix)
Great houses like Pueblo Bonito are associated with what cultural phenomenon dating to the turn of the first millennium AD?
Center of cultural phenomenon involving long-distance exchange, great house construction, and kiva ceremonialism - the roots of Ancestral and modern-day Pueblo culture
What are the two major competing hypotheses that explain the origins of the Eastern Agricultural Complex?
Scenario 1: Floodplain Weed Hypothesis
- Bruce Smith
- Co-evolutionary approach
- Niche construction
Scenario 2: Upland Gardeners Hypothesis
- Kristen Gremillion
- Human behavioral ecology
- Optimal foraging theory
What site in west Tennessee may have been a Hopewellian pilgrimage center, based on its monuments, mortuary record, and exotic artifacts?
Copena Mortuary Ritual (Tennessee River runs through Alabama)
Twin Mounds, Pinson, Tennessee (located in western Tennessee)
What are two challenges to the adoption of Eastern Agricultural Complex crops as a sustainable farming alternative in the 21st century?
- Rarity of relevant species
- Yield/market unknown
- Access to seed stock
What type of site, which included monumental architecture alongside significant residential occupation, emerged in the American Southeast during the Late Woodland period?
Subsistence Economy: Adoption of Maize Agriculture
What type of religion finds expression in Hopewell art and iconography?
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex
The individual Birdman or Morning Star is a central figure in what widely shared iconographic system in Eastern North America?
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (SECC)
What are two ways that archaeologists are able to "tell time" at Chaco Canyon?
- Dendrochronology has also been essential for dating Chaco's occupation (dating tree rings to tell the age of them)
- Trees were dozens of miles away, went and cut them down and had to transport them back
What group was accused of atrocities against the indigenous American populations in the so-called "Black Legend"?
What type of black and white pottery, associated with the Mogollon culture, often has holes punched out of the center of bowls?
What site in northern Mexico was a center of religious integration during the post‐AD 1200 reconstitution of the Southwestern landscape?
Theory 1: Hopewell links communities dependent on unpredictable wild resources. Successful horticulture made this network less necessary
Theory 2: Folks decided local cooperation rather than long distance competition was a better way to manage horticultural society
Monk's Mound (Cahokia)
- One of the first things to be built
- Largest earthen structure ever built north of Mexico
- 14 stages: Had a temple at the very top and the lower platforms had elite houses
Later Cahokia's Palisade
2 mile long stockade surrounding central elite precinct
- Made of 20,000 large posts surrounding Monk's Mound
- Elites live inside the posts, while other lived outside of them for defense
- Astronomically aligned post circle: solar calendar
- Central pole was a symbolic axis mundi, connecting the Above World, the Middle World and the Underworld
- Located on the Black Warrior River in Alabama
- 300 acre village with 1000 people; 10,000 people in surrounding countryside
- Central plaza and 26 mounds; largest mounds for elite residences, smaller for ritual buildings
- Layout illustrates the ranking of elite families (a sociogram)
Small mound center located in northern Georgia, along the Etowah River
- Mound B was regularly recapped and was associated with large circular structures, perhaps used for exclusive elite rituals
- Mound C was a burial mound, which included large quantities of grave goods in many burials
- Large plaza in the center was a gathering place for political ceremonies, events, games like chunkey and lacrosse
Many language speakers in Arizona and New Mexico who share common cultural traits
Las Capas, Arizona
- 1200-800 BC
- 50+ pit houses
- 100 acres of irrigated fields
- Canals between the fields to make sure the crops had access to water
Mesa Verde, Colorado
Major focus on defense and ritual, although assemblages tell us that people were actually living here - although without much inequality
- Against the cliffs so they can hide from others
- Certain shrines are on top of the mountains
Mesa Verde, Cliff Palace
- Multi story structure built against the cliffs, tucked away
- Multiple kivas
- One of the largest settlements of Mesa Verde
Mesa Verde, Sand Canyon Pueblo
- Not the most abundant place to live
Mesa Verde are not great to agriculture, and very vulnerable to environmental fluctuations. Drought and resulting competition over resources likely contributed to the abandonment these sites AD 1300
Mesa Verde Abandonment: Role of Violence?
- Human remains with head wounds
- Burned structures
- Skeletons gnawed by animals rather than buried
- Abandonment of Chaco, Mesa Verde and other major Pueblo sites ca. 1200-1300 led to migrations that re-shaped the Southwest. Interactions between local traditions and Puebloan groups created the more or less contemporary Southwest culture area
Southern New Mexico, Southeastern Arizona, northern Mexico
- Identified as a stand alone culture
- Discovered by Emil Haury
- Found pit houses that differed from earlier Pueblo cultures
Mogollon: Tularosa Cave
- Major reservation site
- When excavated; found thousands of corn cobs, cotton, remains and shoes
- Mogollon foraging community and then ancestral Puebloan people came
- Excavations showed 2 different types of cranial
- Based on how they are placed in the cradle; flat head or more banded forehead
- Located south of Phoenix
- Hundreds of pit houses, trash mounds, platform mounds, ball courts; 10 miles of canal system
- Man made canals run through the town coming from the Salt River
- One of the largest cities in the world at 300-acre contact
Hohokam: Casa Grande
First archaeological national monument ever designated (1904)
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