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AP Gov't Unit 1 review
Terms in this set (55)
Activities associated with the governance of a country or other area. The debates and conflicts among individuals or parties having or hoping to achieve power.
Governing or controlling body whose power exists only within pre-defined limits that are established by a constitution or other source of authority.
People's rights such as life, liberty, and property. Human's Rights that people supposedly have under natural law.
Principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives. Rule by the People, who are the
source of all political power
Support for a republican system of government.
An implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection.
Declaration of Independence
Formal statement written by Thomas Jefferson declaring the freedom of the thirteen American colonies from Great Britain.
The supreme laws of the United States.
Model of democracy in which citizens have the power to decide directly on policy and politicians are responsible for implementing those policy decisions. Emphasizes broad participation in politics and civil society.
Model of democracy in which no one group dominates politics and organized groups compete with each other to influence policy. Emphasizes group-based activism by nongovernmental interests striving for impact on political decision making.
Model of democracy in which a small number of people, usually those who are wealthy and
well-educated, influence political decision making. Emphasizes limited participation in politics and civil society.
Favored stronger central government. Favored a large republic. Supported the new Constitution.
Favored strong state governments. Opposed ratification of the new Constitution. Feared a strong central government would render the states powerless. Demanded a Bill of Rights
Federalist No. 10
how to guard against the "mischiefs factions"
and advocates for a large republic.
interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked in Federalist Paper #10.
Brutus No. 1
Confederacy is the best form of government, not the republic because it is too big and will take advantage of its power.
Articles of Confederation
Basis of government for the 13 original states. The first constitution of the United States.
Revolt of angry people that demonstrated the weakness of the Congress and the central government.
Decision to give each state equal membership in the Senate and representation based on population in the House of Representatives.
a body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the
president and vice president.
Agreement to count 3/5 of all slaves for
determining population in the house.
Slave Trade Compromise
Agreement to prohibit Congress from banning the
slave trade for twenty years.
A change made in the constitution brought proposed by either 2/3 of both houses or 2/3 of state legislatures before a national convention, and ratified by either 3/4 state legislatures or 3/4 state ratifying conventions.
The process by which a Constitutional amendment, or other document is officially put into place.
Have power to collect taxes, borrow money, build roads.
Each state had sovereignty and complete control of their laws and affairs. The government of a country subdivision in a federal form of government, which shares political power with the federal or national government.
Separations of Power
3 separate branches of government. Equality and independence of each branch.
Check and Balances
The power of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government to block some acts by the other two branches.
Federalist No. 51
Explained that checks and balances would spread power so that one section of government would not become a dominant power
A constitutional procedure by which federal judges and civil officers can be removed from office before their terms expire.
This is the ability of the President to remove any appointed federal officer whenever he wants for any reason. However, the Supreme Court has upheld Congressional limits on removal power for Independent Commissioners.
Specific powers that can be only be exercised by the national or central government.
Shared powers between federal and state governments.
Government actions to address some perceived social, economic, or economic problem. The political agenda determines which issues will receive consideration in formulating new policy.
Federal Revenue Sharing
Federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenue with the states. Confederation. Type of government in which power is held by independent states, central government is a product of constituent government.
An official order or directive to do something.
Money issued by the U.S. Congress which may be spent only for narrowly defined purpose and subject to detailed conditions.
Broad grant with few strings attached given to the states for general area.
The power reserved to the States.
Civil Rights in the States; All persons born or naturalized in the United States are subject to its laws and cannot be denied any of the rights and privileges contained in the Constitution.
Enumerated power of Congress to regulate trade between states and foreign countries.
Specific powers granted to Congress as outlined in Article 1, Section 8 of the United States Constitution.
Powers of U.S. government which have not been explicitly granted by the Constitution but that is implied by the necessary and proper clause to be delegated for the purpose of carrying out the enumerated powers.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Established supremacy of the U.S. Constitution and federal laws over state laws.
U.S. v. Lopez
Supreme Court ruling that restricted the commerce clause and limited the authority of congress.
Explain how democratic ideals are reflected in the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution.
The Declaration of Independence, drafted by Jefferson with help from Adams and Franklin, provides a foundation for popular sovereignty, while the U.S. Constitution drafted at the Philadelphia Convention and led by George Washington, with important contributions from Madison, Hamilton, and members of the "Grand Committee," provides the blueprint for a unique form of political democracy in the U.S.
Explain how models of representative democracy are visible in major institutions, policies, events, or debates in the U.S.
Representative democracies can take several forms along this scale.
-Different aspects of the U.S. Constitution as well as the debate between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in Federalist No. 10 and Brutus No. 1 reflect the tension between the broad participatory model and the more filtered participation of the pluralist and elite models.
-The three models of representative democracy continue to be reflected in contemporary institutions and political behavior.
(The U.S. government is based on ideas of limited government, including natural rights, popular sovereignty, republicanism, and social contract. such as participatory, pluralist and elite democracy)
Explain how Federalist and Anti- Federalist views on central government and democracy are reflected in U.S. foundational documents.
Madison's arguments in Federalist No. 10 focused on the superiority of a large republic in controlling the "mischiefs of faction," delegating authority
to elected representatives and dispersing power between the states and national government.
-Anti-Federalist writings, including Brutus No. 1, adhered to popular democratic theory that emphasized the benefits of a small decentralized republic while warning of the dangers to personal liberty from a large, centralized government.
Explain the relationship between key provisions of the Articles of Confederation and the debate over granting the federal government greater power formerly reserved to the states.
Lack of centralized military power to address Shays' Rebellion
Lack of tax law enforcement power
Requirement of unanimity of all states to amend the articles
Explain the ongoing impact of political negotiation and compromise at the Constitutional Convention on the development of the constitutional system.
Compromise deemed necessary for adoption and ratification of the Constitution are represented by the: Great (Connecticut) Compromise/Electoral College/Three-Fifths Compromise/Compromise on the importation of slaves
Debates about the self-government during the drafting of the Constitution necessitated the drafting of an amendment process in Article V that entailed either a two-thirds vote in both houses or a proposal from two-thirds of the state
legislatures, with final ratification determined by three-fourths of the states.
The compromises necessary to secure ratification of the Constitution left some matters unresolved that continue to generate discussion and debate today
Explain the constitutional principles of separation of powers and checks and balances.
The powers allocated to Congress, the president, and the courts demonstrate the separation of powers and checks and balances features of the U.S. Constitution.
2. Federalist #51 explains how constitutional provisions of separation of powers and checks and balances control abuses by majorities "the structure of the proposed government makes liberty possible"
Explain the implications of separation of powers and checks and balances for the U.S. political system.
Multiple access points for stakeholders and institutions to influence public policy flows from the separation of powers and checks and balances.
2. Impeachment, removal, and other legal actions taken against public officials deemed to have abused their power reflect the purpose of checks and balances.
Explain how societal needs affect the constitutional allocation of power between the national and state governments.
The exclusive and concurrent powers of the national and state governments help to explain the negotiations over the balance of power between the two levels.
2. The distribution of power between federal and state governments to meet the needs of society changes, as reflected by grants, incentives, and aid programs, including federal revenue sharing, mandates, categorical grants, and block grants.
Explain how the appropriate balance of power between national and state governments has been interpreted differently over time.
The balance of power between the national and state governments has changed over time
based on U.S. Supreme Court interpretation of such cases as:
•McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)—which declared that Congress has implied powers
necessary to implement its enumerated powers and established supremacy of the U.S.
Constitution and federal laws over the states.
•U.S. v. Lopez (1995)—which ruled that Congress may not use the Commerce Clause to
make possession of a gun in a school zone a federal crime, introducing a new phase of
federalism that recognized the importance of state sovereignty and local control. The interpretation of the Tenth and Fourteenth Amendments, the Commerce Clause, the Necessary and Proper Clause, and other enumerated and implied powers is at the heart of the debate over the balance of power between the national and state governments
Explain how the distribution of powers among three federal branches and between national and state governments impacts policy making.
The balance of power between the national and state governments has changed over time based on U.S. Supreme Court interpretation of such cases as:McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) and United States v. Lopez (1995)
-The interpretation of the 10th and 14th Amendments, the commerce clause, the necessary and proper clause, and other enumerated and implied powers is at the heart of the debate
over the balance of power between the national and state governments.
-Debates about self- government during the drafting of the Constitution necessitated the drafting of an amendment process in Article V that entailed either a two-thirds vote in both houses or a proposal from two-thirds of the state legislatures, with final ratification determined
by three-fourths of the states.
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