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Bio Final Exam
Terms in this set (47)
doctor who did sex reassignment experiment with Reimer twins; nature vs. nurture.
the process within a cell that results in the donation of one allele from each parent for a trait.
a portion of DNA that encodes for a specific protein
an alternative form of a gene that encodes for a particular trait.
exerts its effects whenever present (Huntington's Disease) Males and females affected equally, heterozygotes are affected, and affected children will have at least one affected parent.
masked if the dominant allele is present. Males and females affected equally, heterozygotes have a normal phenotype, and affected children can have unaffected parents.
Daughter cells of mitosis
each daughter cell gets a copy of both homologous chromosomes with both alleles from each trait. The ploidy is 2.
Daughter cells of meiosis
each daughter cell gets a copy of one homologous chromosome with one allele from each trait. The ploidy is 4.
Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.
The process by which a single parent reproduces by itself. Identical population.
a shuffling of parental traits that result in offspring with unique characteristics. diverse population.
alleles of a gamete/sex cell
alleles of a somatic/body cell
Steps of Mitosis
metaphase: chromosomes align at the metaphase plate
anaphase: sister chromatids separate
telophase: daughter cells form and are identical to parental cell.
Steps of Meiosis
Meiosis 1: homologous chromosomes separate
Prophase 1: crossing over occurs
Metaphase 1: homologous align independently
Anaphase 1: homologous separate
Telophase 1: daughter cells form
Meiosis 2: sister chromatids separate and are not identical to parental cells.
What's the chance of offspring phenotypically expressing an autosomal dominant trait in a monohybrid cross?
What's the chance of offspring phenotypically expressing an autosomal recessive trait in a monohybrid cross?
In what type of autosomal inheritance (dominant or recessive) can you have carrier offspring for a trait?
Sex-linked Pedigree: Which offspring would be carriers for the trait? Can you have male carriers in x-linked inheritance?
An affected son can have parents with normal phenotype. For a female to have characteristics, her father must have the condition while her mother is a carrier or has it as well. Females. No.
What is the default sex in humans?
What genetic region on what chromosome guides development of human males?
the Y chromosome
A person with both XX and XY chromosomes with ovaries and testes caused by the normal distribution of chromosomes in meiosis.
Whats normal, disjunction or nondisjunction?
In a human fetus, what structures (ducts) go on to produce the sex-specific anatomy of male or female?
Wolffian and Mullerian ducts
the formation of a living organism in a lab setting from biochemicals and their supporting materials.
Craig Venter produced his synthetic life form from the genome of what organism?
Mycoplasma Mycoides (MM) or "synthia"
What were the steps that Venter used to produce his synthetic organism? What is the name of this procedure?
Chromosomal Transplantation: Determine the DNA base sequence for MM than synthesize the MM DNA chemically in fragments using DNA bases (GCAT), phosphates, and deoxyribose sugar. Stitch together all of the fragments in a yeast cell then transplant the artificial DNA into a Mycoplasma capricolum cell. Let the bacterium divide and create daughter cells with some copying the nature DNA and some copying the synthetic DNA. Use an antibiotic to kill the bacteria with the natural DNA then allow new bacterial species to reduce its own unique proteins.
What is the key purpose of the technology known as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?
It increases the total amount of DNA so that other forms of technology can be employed.
Similarities and differences of PCR and DNA replication
similarities: Both employ the same four bases (GCAT) and both use a semi-conservative method of replication.
differences: PCR uses an alternative form of DNA polymerase, produces multiple copies of DNA versus just making one copy as a dividing cell does, and uses heat instead of a helices enzyme to separate the DNA strands.
What are the two main regions of a gene? What do they do?
Promoter: turns the gene on and off and specifies how many copies of the protein will be produced.
Coding region: contains the coding information which designates the amino acid sequence of the protein to be produced.
1.) the DNA segment of a strand is heated to denature DNA.
2.) DNA is cooled to a lower temp to allow annealing of primers.
3.) DNA is heated to 72 C, the optimal temp for tag DNA polymerase to extend primers.
Recombinant DNA technology
technology that combines genes from different sources into a single DNA molecule
What are restriction enzymes or endonucleases? Where did they originally come from? How do we use them as a DNA technology tool?
Naturally occurring bacteria produced, used to attack the DNA of infections phage viruses by cutting/restriction it at key points along the strands. Doing this prevents new viruses to replicate and these enzymes can be used to cut DNA or stitch sections together with ligase enzymes to make synthetic genomes.
Making a 'terminator' in the Sanger method of DNA sequencing
Add a phosphate group to a normal deoxyribose sugar with an OH group and continue the chain. Take the oxygen off the OH group so no more phosphate groups can be added and no nucleotide can be added to the DNA backbone.
determines how far each of the DNA fragments will move across the gel.
extracts energy from food and stores that energy in the form of ATP molecules.
consists of 37 genes passed down only from the mother with sperm mitochondria degrading shortly after fertilization.
Whats affected within the mitochondria from Leigh's disease?
Which cell types are likely to be limited in function because of defective mitochondria?
Egg cell, kidney cell, nerve cell, and muscle cell.
How is the pronuclear transfer or DNA transplant performed? Is the baby genetically related to the mother or the female egg donor?
Transferring DNA from individual to another, female egg donor.
What do we mean by a genetically modified or recombinant organism? Is that the same thing as a transgenic one?
A GMO is one whose genome has been altered from its natural state. A transgenic organism uses other organisms resources to alter another.
Can you think of a couple of examples we discussed this semester where genetically modified organisms would be considered transgenic?
Transduction, transformation, and conjugation in bacteria. Insertion of viral prophages in human cervical cells. Insertion of CF gene via micro-RNA in lung epithelial cells.
What are the main regions of a gene?
Regulatory sequences: determine when and how much protein a gene makes. Coding sequences: determine the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein.
Making a transgenic goat
Step 1- create hybrid gene: goat regulatory sequence and human antithrombin coding sequence are cute out of donor cell chromosomes and joined together using special enzymes. Step 2- microinjection and embryo transfer: hybrid gene if injected in goat embryo that gets implanted in the mother goat. Step 3- purify antithrombin from transgenic milk.
When complete, whose DNA (nuclear and mitochondrial) would an embryo produced using the pronuclear transfer process shown at right contain?
The female with mutant mtDNA
How much of the human genome consists of non-coding regions that don't make proteins?
what would you say is the general relationship between the genome size of an organism and its complexity?
Genome size tends to increase as organism complexity increases.
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