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reproduction/child abuse-spring 19
Terms in this set (31)
sexually transmitted diseases - syphilis and gonorrhea
chronic sexually transmitted systemic infection / in primary and secondary stage antibiotic therapy clears the disease - tertiary stage is incurable
bacterial infection and is the most common-widespread venereal disease/ more common in men / Symptoms start a few days after infected with the bacteria / If untreated it becomes chronic and produced fibrosis that leads to urethral stricture in men - Treatment includes antibiotic therapy
most common in men between 20-25 / almost all testicular tumors are malignant and tend to metastasize to the lymphatics that follow along the testicular arteries and veins / Testicular tumors are best demonstrated on ultrasound examinations with 98-100% accuracy
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
an enlargement of the prostate gland and is common in men older than 60 years / typically related to a disturbance of hormone secretions from the sex gland that occurs as the period of reproductive activity declines / The major side effect of prostate enlargement is the inability to empty the bladder completely
Prostate cancer metastases
is the second most common malignancy in men / The tumor can grow slowly over a long period of time or behave aggressively with extensive metastases - treatment is planting of radioactive seeds implantation / most common site for prostate cancer to metastasize in the bone - primarily in the pelvis, thoracolumbar spine, femurs and ribs.
Ovarian Cysts / modality best demonstrated
the most common in female infants and women of child-bearing age / Best demonstrated on Ultrasound / Polycystic ovarian syndrome appears as 10 or more cysts / Ovarian cysts are common and many resolve without treatment - Cysts that are larger than 10 mm and are complex may require drainage or surgery.
most common cancer in women between 44-50 / most tumors are classified as infiltrating duct carcinomas, which occur in the upper lateral quadrant of the breast / currently many breast tumors are diagnosed before they are palpable because of routine screening mammograms / breast cancer diagnosed in stage 1 have a 98% survival rate / If breast tumors are not diagnosed in an early stage they spread to regional lymph nodes or systemically and result in a high rate of mortality - 50% of women diagnosed past stage 1 do not survive, making breast cancer the leading cause of cancer death in women / Almost all breast cancers appear as a tumor mass, clustered calcifications, or both
excessive accumulation of amniotic fluid that can cause diabetes mellitus / it can also be related to fetal abnormalities of the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, circulatory system and dwarfism.
Child abuse -
Any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or caregiver that results in harm, or threat of harm [as defined by CDC]
Individual, relational, community, and societal factors / Individual factors: under the age of 4, special needs children /parent out of work/low income
bucket handle fractures (whiplash in their joints) * [picture likely on test] / rib fractures and skull fractures- from shaking the child
Syphilis what agent causes systemic infection?
spirochete Treponema pallidium.
Baby born w/syphilis what is associated?
a baby of an infected mother can be born with congenital syphilis / Multiple bone abnormalities can occur in infants with congenital syphilis. Mental retardation, deafness and blindness are common complications
Syphilis pictures from lecture
Syphilis involvement of the skeletal system most commonly produces chronic osteomyelitis which usually affects the long bones and skull.
Lesions that involve the cerebral cortex can cause mental disorders, deafness, and blindness
Kid w/ syphilis pic
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia modality
Transrectal ultrasound imaging best demonstrates and enlargement of the gland / MRI and CT are not used to evaluate BPH / Treatment includes: Surgical resection of the prostate
Prostate cancer images
Transrectal ultrasound can help diagnose cancer of the prostate but may not be able to differentiate between a malignancy and a benign disease
MRI can delineate the prostate, seminal vesicles, and surrounding organs to provide accurate staging of prostate cancer.
CT can aid in the defining the extension of the tumor into the bladder, seminal vesicles and detecting metastases in the lymph nodes.
The most common site for prostate cancer to metastasize is the bone, primarily the pelvis, thoracolumbar spine, femurs and ribs.
These lesions are most commonly osteoblastic and appear as multiple rounded masses of sclerotic density.
Testicular Tumors imaging
Teratomas appear inhomogeneous with cystic and solid areas of calcification. (LT)
Seminomas appear as uniform-echo structures (RT)
(looks like Eye of Sauron w/ cataract. bxw)
On an ultrasound ovarian cysts appear as round, anechoic adnexal masses
CT is the modality of choice for staging and surgical planning
Treatment includes surgical resection
Ovarian cancer has a 25-30% survival rate with early treatment
The typical malignant tumor of the breast demonstrates a poorly defined area of distortion that has irregular borders, and has fine linear strands or spicules radiating outward from the mass.
Right= increased amniotic fluid and evidence of gastric abnormality. (abnormally small stomach)
X-ray: There are 6 factors that are assessed when diagnosing child abuse.
1. Single fracture with multiple bruises
2. Multiple fractures at different stages of healing - no bruises
3. Metaphysial - Epiphysial injuries often multiple
4. Rib fractures
5. Increased new bone growth
6. Skull fracture with intra-cranial injury
Metaphyseal corner fractures or bucket handle fractures usually occur in children under 2 years of age.
When shaking a child with the hands around the child's chest.
shaken baby-eggshell fracture
shaken baby-occipital fracture
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