QUICK MEMORIZATION: GI Diseases
Terms in this set (47)
(special symptoms of) Helicobacter pylori gastritis
associated with stomach ulcers; gastritis with belching; can lead to stomach cancer.
(pathogenesis) Helicobacter pylori
urease, VacA and CagA, decrease in mucus production.
(epidemiology) Helicobacter pylori
low socioeconomic groups, fecal oral-route- found in well water.
(treatment/prevention) Helicobacter pylori
antibiotics and medications that inhibit acid production
(causative agent) helicobacter pylori
(special symptoms) gastroenteritis
loss of appetite, in small intestine: watery diarrhea, in large intestine: dysentery; dehydration
disrupts fluid exchange in small intestine, exotoxin production: entertoxin causes water and electrolyte loss; cytotoxin: causes cell death.
fecal-oral route; pulseNet used to track illness in intestine.
Oral rehydration therapy; NO ANTIBIOTICS because it supresses microbiota; zinc supplements
(special symptoms) cholera
rice stool, watery diarrhea, dehydration, stomach cramps
produces A-B Toxin. The A portion activates G protein , sensitive to acid,
- can be reduced by effective water waste treatment.
oral rehydration therapy and antibiotics
(causative agent) cholera
vibrio cholerae, gram negative, halotolerant, curved rod.
multiple low volume episodes per day; stiff neck; headache; convulsions; joint pain.
- sampling function of M protein.
- Shiga Toxin (A-B toxin) causes HUS, which can cause anemia and kidney failure.
A subunit stops protein synthesis and B subunit binds to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels.
- causes actin polymerization to propel cell to cell
antibiotics and pulse net
fecal-oral route; small ID; poor sanitation such as daycare facilities;can also spread through anal intercourse.
(causative agent) Shigellosis
members of enterobacteriaceae;
S. dysenteria --> Most virulent
S. Sonnei --> least virulent, most common in US
S. dysenteria and S. Flexneri --> most common in developing countries
gram negative, rod shaped.
(special symptoms) E. coli gastroenteritis
Hemolytic uremic syndrome from Shiga Toxin. watery diarrhea and dysentery.
(pathogenesis) E.coli gastroenteritis
STEC -- produces Shiga Toxin --> HUS
(epidemiology) E.coli gastroenteritis
STEC, ETEC, EPEC, EIEC, EAEC, DAEC; found in raw beef.
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli; strains foodborne (raw beef)
strains important in infants.
primarly cause disease in young children in developing countries.
strains infect children, travelers, AIDS patients.
strains have caused outbreaks in children.
(treatment) E.coli gastroenteritis
replacement of fluid; antibiotics are NOT NEEDED; Pulse net; for travelers diarrhea --> Pepto bismol
(causative agent) e.coli gastroenteritis
gram negative, ferments lactose, E. coli
Salmonella Gastroenteritis (pathogenesis)
most sensitive to acid, so high infectious dose. Type III secretion for endocytosis; inflammatory response causes diarrhea and tetrathionate that it can use in anaerobic respiration.
(epidemiology) salmonella gastroenteritis
its contaminated by nonhuman feces; exposure to farm animals; poultry and eggs contaminated. ; children are commonly infected by pet reptiles
Salmonella gastroenteritis (treatment)
NO antibiotics; cooking food to 160 degrees fahrenheit.
(causative agent) Salmonella gastroenteritis
Salmonella enterica; gram-negative rod; part of the enterobacteriaceae family.
(symptoms) typhoid and paratyphoid
constipation, intestinal rupture, bleeding, shock, NO DIARRHEA, death, severe headache.
(pathogenesis) typhoid and paratyphoid
peyer's patches are destroyed; ruptured intestine; hemorrhage, and death. toxin is produced when cells are within a host.
(Epidemiology) typhoid and paratyphoid
colonize in the gallbladder, which can shed high numbers for years. Spread via contaminated food or water.
(treatment) typhoid and paratyphoid
antibiotics, surgical removal of gallbladder, attenuated live oral or injectable capsular polysaccharide against s. typhi.
No vaccine for S. paratyphi
(special symptoms) campylobacteriosis
-most common bacterial gastroenteritis
- dysentery in about 50% of cases.
- fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps
guillian barre, associated with autoimmunity, causes localized paralysis.
(causative agent) typhoid and paratyphoid
S. typhi and S. paratyphi; confirmed with blood culture.
sporadic, raw chicken is the most common source, low ID, mostly in elderly or the young children, or immunodeficient. Lives in intestine of domestic animals. 100 deaths/ year.
antibiotics; leaves patients immune; cooking and proper handling of raw poultry (chicken); chlorinating drinking water, pasteurizing beverages.
(special symptoms) Clostridium difficile
-antibiotic associated diarrhea
- pseudomembrane colitis
- diarrhea with fever
(pathogenesis) Clostridium difficle
--ToxA and ToxB (binary toxins produced by hypercvirulent strains)
- pseudomembranes form
- disrupts host cell actin polymerization
(epidemiology) Clostridium difficle
usually seen in hospitalized patients on antibiotic therapy.
(treatment) Clostridium difficle
resistant to fluoroquinolones
Fecal microbiota transplant repairs dysbiosis.