Neurophysiology Final Exam: Locomotion
Terms in this set (54)
learned sequences of muscle activation that produce a specific movement (*learned, sensory feedback, practice)
Once a movement (motor program) has been learned, all that is required is a(n) __________ to trigger muscle activations.
action of moving from place to place
repetitive sequence of muscle activity (alternating movements of body or appendages)
spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex
Locomotion involves activity in the __________, __________, __________, __________, and __________.
initiate locomotion, coordinate, respond to perturbation, postural compensation, implement goal directed changes
What are the five contributions to locomotion/control of movement made by the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex?
walk, race walk, run, sprint
What are the 4 modes of human locomotion?
What are the 2 phases of human locomotion?
phase of support
phase of non-support
transection of spinal cord, typically between forelimbs and hindlimbs
transection of brainstem
transection of dorsal roots
removes movement related feedback (fictive locomotion)
locomotory neural activity in the absence of movement and sensory feedback (occurs with immobilization)
central pattern generator
network of neurons capable of generating rhythmic pattern of motor activity in absence of phasic sensory input from peripheral receptors
network of neurons capable of generating rhythmic patterns of motor activity in absence of (rhythmic) sensory or central input
assisted locomotion training
involves person with spinal cord injury walking on treadmill with partial support of body weight and assistance in moving legs
takes advantage of critical sensory cues essential for locomotion
produced from within; due to internal causes
bursts of action potentials
delayed onset of activity after termination of inhibitory input
cell properties, synapse properties, pattern of connections
What three factors determine the generation of rhythmic motor activity by CPGs?
neurons generate bursts of APs spontaneously (due to certain types of ion channels)
regulated bursting; neurons only burst under certain conditions (for example in the presence of certain neuromodulatory substances)
single interneuronal synaptic self-inhibition (for example, the Renshaw cell excited by a motor neuron will inhibit that motor neuron)
Huntington's disease, dystonia, athetosis, and hemiballismus are _______________ disorders.
disorders characterized by excessive motor activity and movements (not enough inhibition from the basal ganglia)
involuntary movements (hyperkinetic)
decreased muscle tone (hyperkinetic)
rhythmic, sinusoidal movements (hyperkinetic)
Tics, chorea, ballism, and myoclonus are considered _______________ movements (hyperkinetic).
jerky, random movements of limbs or orofacial structures that cannot be suppressed (hyperkinetic) - seen in Huntington's - more fluid than a jerk
violent, large-amplitude, proximal limb movements (hyperkinetic)
fast, shock-like muscle contraction that cannot be supressed (hyperkinetic)
abnormal postures and slower movements (hyperkinetic) long, sustained contractions
slow, writhing movement of the extremities (hyperkinetic)
Parkinson's disease is a type of _______________ disorder.
disorder characterized by reduced motor activity and movements (too much inhibition from the basal ganglia) usually accompanied by muscular rigidity (resistance to passive displacement) and tremor
impaired initiation of movement (hypokinetic)
reduced amplitude and velocity of voluntary movement (hypokinetic)
corpus striatum, caudate, putamen
The input center of the basal ganglia is the _______________ and includes the _______________ (neurons fire prior to eye movement) and the _______________ (discharge in anticipation of body movements).
initiate, control speed, control mode
three functions of the medial reticular formation
mesencephalic locomotor region
A region of the reticular formation of the midbrain whose stimulation causes alternating movements of the limbs normally seen during locomotion. (provides input to the medial reticular formation)
MLR, motor cortex, vestibular system, cerebellum, spinal locomotor system
the medial reticular formation receives inputs from these 5 brain structures/systems
corpus striatum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nuclei
4 basic components of the basal ganglia
globus palidus internal, substantia nigra pars reticula
The corpus striatum (putamen and caudate) (input region of basal ganglia) inhibit the _______________ and _______________ (main sources of output).
To produce voluntary movement, the corpus striatum (caudate and putamen) disinhibit the _______________ by inhibiting the golbus pallidus internal and susbtantia nigra pars reticula.
receives signals from both peripheral sensory receptors and spinal CPGs and adjusts locomotor pattern via brain stem nuclei
reducing differences between actual and intended motor behavior
adjusts operation of motor centers in cortex and brain stem
movements become uncoordinated and inaccurate (cerebellar damage)
impaired ability to judge distance - over-reach or under-reach target (cerebellar damage)
visual, vestibular, somatosensory
What three types of sensory input are used by nervous system to control stepping?
integrate limb feedback, visual guidance of limb movement, activation of spinal locomotor system (internal/external cues)
Supraspinal control (descending input) performs what three roles during locomotion?
start/stop, coordination, response to perturbation, postural compensation, goal directed changes
What are five roles that descending inputs play in locomotion?
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