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Psych Quiz 6
Terms in this set (26)
refers to retaining learned material and, from an instructional view, involves helping subjects be able to learn and remember more.
very brief lasting of the sensory image in our sensory register.
Short-term memory (STM)
or "working memory" holds information we are actively thinking about; limited in capacity (~ 7 items) & duration (less than a minute unless actively rehearsing).
Long-term memory (LTM)
items encoded into this are held almost permanently; virtually unlimited capacity.
process of repeating information mentally or out loud with the goal of keeping it in memory.
processing of new information by thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered, as opposed to simply repeating the word to yourself over and over.
Difference between the primacy and recency effects, and some possible causes of each
The primacy effect refers to a tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented early in a list. The recency effect refers to the tendency to better remember stimuli that are presented later in a list. In terms of recency, it's considered easy to recall the last stimuli presented in a list because it is the most recent. The last bits of information in a series are also more likely to be recalled because they are the ones closest to positive reinforcers for successfully completing the task. On the other hand, however, the primacy effect works in favor of those who immediately begin to rehearse the stimuli introduced to them early on in the list because new material is novel and so it possesses characteristics that distinguish it from old information and the material that follows it.
knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered.
influence of experience on behavior, even if the individual is not aware of those influences.
occurs when earlier learning impairs our ability to encode information that we try to learn later and/or one's ability to remember such info
occurs when learning something new impairs our ability to retrieve information that was learned earlier.
refers to apparent loss of information such as in moments where we KNOW we know the answer to something (like someone's name, for example) already encoded and stored in our long term memory. It is often a gradual process in which old memories are unable to be recalled from memory storage.
refers to depending on cues so as to remember things. Cue dependent forgetting is the failure to recall a memory due to missing stimuli or cues that were present at the time the memory was encoded.
Recall Memory Test
measure of explicit memory that involves bringing from memory information that has previously been remembered.
measure of explicit memory that involves determining whether information has been seen or learned before. A multiple-choice test is an example of this.
assess how much more quickly information is processed or learned when it is studied again after it has already been learned but then forgotten.
Information must go through both sensory store and STM before entering LTM.
most information goes through sensory and STM before entering LTM, but meaningful/important information can bypass STM.
Paivio's Dual Code Theory
information rehearsed bimodally (e.g., visually and auditorily for most human learning) is learned faster/easier and is easier to remember (and more resistant to interference) than if the information were learned unimodally.
Bransford's Transfer-Appropriate Theory
(also known as the cue-dependent theory of forgetting), refers to depending on cues so as to remember things.
Parallel Distributed Processing Theory
suggests that information is processed in all three memories and in different ways simultaneously.
states that if a piece of info is related to other pieces of info, it then becomes more easily accessible.
the firsthand experiences that we have had.
our knowledge of facts and concepts about the world.
3 letter non-words reflecting a consonant-vowel-consonant arrangement. Since they are free of meaning, they are pure primary dependent variables for memory research.
New learning can inhibit remembering older material, and older material can inhibit remembering more recently materials.
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