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Introduction to Therapy and the Psychological Therapies
Terms in this set (79)
Modern Western therapies can be classified into what two categories?
- biomedical therapy
Why do some psychologists consider psychotherapy to be a biological treatment?
because changing the way we think and behave can prompt physical changes in the brain
What influences the choice of treatment?
the care provider's training and expertise as well as the disorder itself
Many psychotherapists describe themselves as taking a ________ approach
What is an eclectic approach?
an approach to psychotherapy that uses techniques from various forms of therapy
What was the first major psychological therapy?
Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis
What is psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique; Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and their therapist's interpretations of them-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
What helped form the foundation for treating psychological disorders, partly by influencing modern therapists working from the psychodynamic perspective?
What were the goals of Freud's psychoanalysis?
- he believed that people could achieve healthier, less anxious living by releasing energy they have previously devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts
- this was Freud's method of helping people face things that we do not want to know
- by helping them reclaim their unconscious thoughts and feelings, and by giving them insight into the origins of their disorders, he aimed to help them reduce growth-impeding inner conflicts
What were some techniques in psychoanalysis?
- free association (the psychoanalyst sits out of your line of vision and you say whatever comes to mind
the mental blocks that occur during free association, such as omitting what seems trivial, indicate resistance; the psychoanalyst will note this and then provide insight into their meaning and if offered at the right moment it can illuminate underlying desires, feelings, and conflicts you are avoiding
- your relationship patterns surfaces in your interactions with your therapist (you may experience intense positive or negative emotions for your analyst) and the analyst may suggest that you are transferring feelings from previous relationships, such as mingled love and anger, and by exposing them, you may gain insight into your current relationships
What is interpretation?
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
What is resistance?
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety laden material
What is transference?
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
What is psychotherapy?
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
What is biomedical therapy?
prescribed medications or procedures than act directly on the person's physiology
Why do few therapists offer traditional psychoanalysis?
because the underlying theory is not backed by scientific research and it takes considerable time and money, often years of several sessions per week
What is psychodynamic therapy?
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition; views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, therapist relationship, and seeks to enhance self-insight
In sessions utilizing psychodynamic theory, what happens?
- patients meet with their therapist face to face and meet once or twice a week
- patients gain perspective by exploring defended against thoughts and feelings
- therapists reveal past relationship troubles as the origin of difficulties
- therapists can restore awareness of their wishes, feelings, and reactions against those wishes and feelings
With patients who are estranged from themselves, therapists using _______ techniques are in a position to introduce them to themselves
What variation of psychodynamic therapy has effectively treated depression?
What is the aim of interpersonal psychotherapy?
it aims to help people gain insight to the roots of their difficulties and its goal is symptom relief in the here and now
rather than focusing on undoing past hurts and offering interpretations, the therapists concentrates primarily on current relationships and on helping people improve their relationship skills
What do humanistic therapies do?
they attempt to reduce growth impeding inner conflicts by providing clients with new insights
The psychodynamic and humanistic therapies are often referred to as?
What are insight therapies?
a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing a person's awareness of underlying motives and defenses
Humanistic therapies differ from psychoanalytic therapies in what ways?
- they aim to boost people's self-fulfillment by helping them grow in self-awareness and acceptance
- promoting growth, not curing illness is the therapy focus
- the path to growth is taking immediate responsibility for one's feelings and actions, rather than uncovering hidden determinants
- conscious thoughts are more important than the unconscious
- the present and future are more important than the past; the goal is to explore feelings as they occur, rather than achieve insights into the childhood origins of the feelings
Who developed the widely humanistic technique client-centered therapy?
What is client-centered therapy/person centered therapy?
a humanistic therapy, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate client's growth
this is a nondirective therapy
Believing that most people possess the resources for growth, Carl Rogers encouraged therapists to do what?
to exhibit genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
What are the effects of therapists drop their facades and genuinely express their true feelings, when they enable clients to feel unconditionally accepted, and when they are empathetic
it may deepen the client's self-understanding and self-acceptance
What is active listening?
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies; a feature of Carl Roger's client-centered therapy
Can a therapist be a perfect mirror, without selecting and interpreting what is reflected?
no, but the therapist's most important contribution is to accept and understand the client
What is unconditional positive regard?
a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients develop self-awareness
What are three tips that can help us listen more actively in our own relationships?
- paraphrase (rather than saying "i known how you feel", check your understandings by summarizing the person's words in your own words)
- invite clarification (may invite the person to say more)
- reflect feelings (it might mirror what you're sensing from the person's body language and intensity)
What is behavior therapy?
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
What is counterconditioning?
behavior therapy procedures that use classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
What is the main theme of behavior therapy?
they assume that behaviors are the problems and they application of learning principles can eliminate them
rather than delving deep below the surface looking for inner causes and doubt the healing power of self-awareness, therapists view maladaptive symptoms-such as phobias-as learned behaviors that can be replaced by constructive behaviors
What is one cluster of behavior therapies?
classical conditioning techniques
Where are classical conditioning techniques in behavior therapies derived from?
Ivan Pavlov's experiments
we learn various behaviors and emotions through classical conditioning; maladaptive symptoms are examples of conditioned responses
What is an example of conditioning therapies?
for chronic bed wetters, the child sleeps on a liquid sensitive pad connected to an alarm; moisture on the pad triggers the alarm waking the child
with sufficient repetition, the association of bladder relaxation with waking up stops the bedwetting
What is another example of conditioning therapies?
a claustrophobic fear or elevators is a learned aversion to being in a confined space
the treatment is to use counter conditioning, in which you pair the trigger stimulus (the enclosed space of an elevator) with a new response (relaxation) that is incompatible with fear
What are exposure therapies?
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization and virtual reality exposure therapy, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actual situations) to the things they fear and avoid
What is systematic desensitization?
a type of exposure therapy that associated a pleasant relaxed state with a gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli; commonly used to treat phobias
What is virtual reality exposure therapy?
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to electronic stimulations of their greatest fears, such as public speaking
What is an example of exposure therapy?
a child is petrified of rabbits and other furry objects; the strategy for treatment is to associate the fear evoking rabbit with the pleasurable, relaxed response associated with eating
as the child begins snacking you introduce a rabbit in a cage on the other side of the room; on succeeding days you gradually move the rabbit closer and closer; within two months the child will begin to tolerate the rabbit in his lap
his fear of other furry objects subsides as well, having been countered, or replaced, by a relaxed state that cannot coexist with fear
What is the trick for the effectiveness of systematic desensitization?
to proceed slowly
What might the process of systematic desensitization entail?
1) you use progressive relaxation in which you train to relax one muscle group after another, until you achieve a blissful state of complete relaxation
2) you then are asked to imagine a mildly anxiety provoking situation, such as speaking up in a group of friends
if imagining the scene causes you to feel anxiety you would signal your tension by raising your finger, and the therapists would instruct you to switch off the mental image and go back to deep relaxation; this imagined scene is repeatedly paired with relaxation until you feel no trace of anxiety
3) the therapist would progress up the constructed anxiety hierarchy, using the relaxed state to desensitize you to each situation; after several sessions, you move to actual situations and practice what you had only imagined before, beginning with easy tasks and moving on to more anxiety provoking ones
Conquering your anxiety in an actual situation, not just your imagination, can raise your _______
Often people fear not just a situation, but also being ___________; as their fear subsides, so does their fear of the fear
incapacitated by their own fear response
When does one use virtual reality exposure therapy?
when the anxiety arousing situation is too expensive, difficult, or embarrassing to re-create
What is aversive conditioning?
a type of counterconditioning that associated an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
Does aversive conditioning work?
in the short term, yes
the problem is that in therapy (as in research), cognition influences conditioning; people know that outside the therapist's office they can engage in their unwanted behavior without fear of experiencing an unwanted state
thus it is used to in combination with other treatments
What is behavior modification?
a technique behavior therapists use in which they reinforce desired behavior and they withhold reinforcement for undesired behaviors
they use positive reinforcers to shape behavior in a step-by-step manner, rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
How do rewards used to modify behavior vary?
for some people, the reinforcing power of attention or praise is sufficient while others require concrete rewards, such as food
What is a token economy?
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange their tokens for various privileges
What are some critiques regarding token economies?
- practicality (how durable are the behaviors? will people become do dependent on external rewards that the appropriate behaviors will stop when the reinforcers stop?)
- ethics (is it right for one human to control another's behavior? this whole process has an authoritarian taint)
What are some rebuttals for the critiques against token economies?
- behaviors will endure if therapists wean patients from the tokens by shifting them toward other, real-life rewards, such as social approval
the appropriate behavior can be intrinsically rewarding (ex. the satisfaction of social interaction can help continue behavior)
- patients request token environments; control already exists since rewards and punishments are already maintaining destructive behavior patterns; so, why not reinforce adaptive behavior instead?
- treatment with positive rewards is more humane than being institutionalized or punished, and the right of effective treatment and improved quality of life justifies temporary deprivation
What is cognitive therapy?
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
What is Aaron Beck's therapy for depression?
he believed that changing people's thinking can change their functioning
when he analyzed depressed people's dreams and he found recurring negative images of loss, rejection, abandonment that extended into their waking thoughts
with cognitive therapy, he and others sought to reverse client's catastrophizing beliefs about themselves, their situations, and their futures; gentle questioning seeks to reveal irrational thinking, and then persuade people to remove the dark perspective they have on life
We often think in words, so getting people to change ___________ is an effective way to change their __________
what they say to themselves, thinking
What was one way of combating negative self talk?
inoculation training, a technique offered by Donald Meichenbaum
what is inoculation training?
teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations
after being trained to dispute their negative thoughts, depression-prone children, teens, and college students exhibit a greatly reduced rate of future depression
selected cognitive therapy techniques
Can only depressed people benefit from positive self-talk?
no, it can even work for others such as athletes to enhance the learning of their skills
What is cognitive behavioral therapy?
a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
behavioral change is typically addressed first, followed by sessions on cognitive change; the therapy concludes with a focus on maintaining both and preventing relapses
What do anxiety, depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder share?
they all have an issue with emotion regulation
What can effective CBT programs for emotional disorders trains people to do what?
to replace their catastrophizing thinking with more realistic appraisals, and, as homework, to practice behaviors that are incompatible with their problem
What other disorder can CBT treat?
it can also treat OCD
one study has shown that people learned to prevent their compulsive behaviors by relabeling their obsessive thoughts
In CBT what happens to people with OCD?
instead of giving into their compulsive urge, they would spend some time in an enjoyable, alternative behavior, such as walking.
How does spending time on enjoyable, alternative tasks, instead of compulsive urges help people with OCD?
it helps unstick the brain by shifting attention and engaging other brain areas
What is the relationship between cognitive behavioral skills and the internet?
these skills can be taught and therapy can be effectively conducted on the Internet
How do you make psychological treatment more accessible and affordable?
some mental health professionals advocate phone based interventions, web-based skill training, work setting treatment, and self-help efforts facilitated by groups, books, and even skype calls
What are the pros and cons of group therapy?
- does not provide the same degree of therapist involvement with each client
- it saves therapists' time and clients' money, often with no less effectiveness than individual therapy
- offers a social lab for exploring social behaviors and developing social skills
- it enables people to see that others share their problems (it can be a relief to discover that you are not alone)
- it provides feedback as clients try out new ways of behaving (hearing that you look poised, even though you feel anxious and self-conscious, can be very reassuring)
Therapists often suggest group therapy to who?
people experiencing frequent conflicts of whose behavior distresses others
What is group therapy?
therapy conducted with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction
What is family therapy?
therapy that treats the family as a system; views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
What do family therapist's do?
they work with multiple family members to heal relationships and to mobilize family resources
they also attempt-with some success-to open up communication within the family or to help family members discover new ways of preventing or resolving conflicts
What do most support groups focus on?
they focus on stigmatized or hard to discuss illnesses, such as anorexia or alcohol use disorder
In an individualistic age, with more and more people living alone or feeling isolated, the popularity of support groups seems to reflect what?
a longing for community and connectedness
comparing modern psychotherapies
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