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Terms in this set (124)
a form of social capital, allows you to participate in the social sphere through conversations with peers. Also serve as a means of cultural orientation, shows your values and preferences.
small social interactions are governed by unspoken social rules, how you act in public
Foucault on power
power isn't imposed through governments and elites, it's found in our everyday actions. Cultures collectively agree and enforce what is good and proper.
power is productive not repressive. Discourse allows for the creation of norms and values
Bourdieu, any social space where people interact, in which it is agreed that some things are more valuable than others. Actors, people who become famous even with a distinct lack of talent
**competitive, people want power
any quality which might be value or associated with status or authority
Culturally valorized symbolic forms
things we have collectively agreed are indicators of cultural worth
reflection of the ordinary: don't want smartest, want the most like us in office. Reflection, not mirror
Couldry, Media as a Ritual
Bottom up understanding. Media rituals organize the world, reinforce our values and connect us to something larger. It is a myth that media is the voice of the center, granting access to a single privileged reality. No one true center or single set of values we all abide by. Celebrity culture is an example of media rituals connecting us to the world. Must pay attention because of xyz value
Myth of the media
Couldry, not a singular collective entity, people have more access to information and are using channels for specific means.
myth of mediated center
It is a myth that media is the voice of the center, granting access to a single privileged reality. No one true center or single set of values we all abide by.
Highly repetitive, formulaic approach to news and underlying values they seem to always promote
domestication is being reworked by media in the opposite direction that we operate with our mobile devices to mobilize our private activities, tastes, values in public
Ex: wearing earbuds to avoid talking, using phone to coordinate visit to mall with mom
Technologies shaping use reveal
the way your device shapes the way you communicate with your friends as well as restricts you use of the device to conform to industrial strategies shows that
technologies reveals broader set of socio-technical relations
Researching everyday life
best way to understand how society is best studied from the bottom up by focusing on what people do with media, not what media do to people
ritual approach to news
understanding that we are given roles to participate and evaluate an array of competing values
Anderson, we come to identify with others online who we will never meet but share a common identity.
Organization of printing technology gave rise to standard languages, made conditions for the spread of national consciousness
society is geared toward maintaining the status quo through media rituals
culture of practice
Bourdieu, nobody is exactly the same but we all fall into types of media users that share characteristics
Media convergence top down perspective
Produced a shake up of the media and ways that we regulate it
media convergence bottom up perspective
generated renewed interest in how people engage with media, what devices they use, how they domesticate it, etc.
dominance of one group, maintains power structures. Defines the norm, looks to understand how power is secured
agenda setting theory
media tells you what to think about not what to think
post 1960's people began to question values and push back against media and power structures
Meaning of Home, Peil & Roser
Domestication is how we tame technology. Household is a buffer between private and public, serving as a moral economy. Still important to study the home to understand how different forms of media change relationships, values.
Peil & Roser, way in which media becomes incorporated into our everyday lives, social and cultural processes of home
household as moral economy
Peil & Roser, unit where values and identities are explored, considered, and adapted in terms of the outer world. This is the buffer.
study of people and their habit, customs, and cultures.
in our case, study of media through how users use it. insider perspective
appropriation of media technology
appropriation: purchase and possess.
objectification: display it, find a place for it
incorporation: integrate into media rituals
conversion: becomes a means of social capital, way to be an active agent in domestic relations
Roger Silverstone & Home
media is a public cultural technology that informs us of public processes so we can make informed decisions. Home is used as a buffer to do this and shape our values
SCHOLAR MOST ASSOCIATED WITH DOMESTICATION OF MEDIA
In class example of moral economy of home
"sports tv" you have to watch your show on your comp if game is on
use of tv is shaped by the hierarchy of values within the home, in this case males have an impact in domesticating the TV
Emergence of unintended fan cultures, fans who latch onto a show intended for a different audience
Bronies & my little pony
The stigma and negative connotations that traditionally come with being a fan of a contemporary media culture is most likely explained by
The moral economy of our society around high culture and popular culture.
Externalization of home with tech
New technology begins to externalize the home beyond physical boundaries. Cell phone is given by parents, used to track kids, micro-coordinate mundane activities
way in which new technology is brought into the home and domesticated w.o damaging kids. Wary of technology, moral panic. Phone and radiation, couch potatoe
Markham: mediation and meaning
Meaning is something we learn to see in culture through a collective recognition of value, though there is no single meaning.
We actively decide what has value and what to pay attention to.
Aim behind most images, but media can't indoctrinate us. A certain self is called forth to process it. Media changes the way we think about the truth->how it's delivered through us via schedules, timing, language
called forth/partially implicated self
When engaging with media, you engage with a certain part of yourself. You as a fan, sister, parent, student.
meaning of media is about how we make use of it in our daily life, not the content.
Develop an handedness: media is just doable, no second thought
Thrownness: thrown into/confronted with other worlds that you automatically must adapt and understand
Heideger, when media is just doable, requiring no conscious reflection. Media are an extension of ourselves, extra limb to use without thought
Heideger, when you're confronted with whole worlds that require different thinking, navigating, and interacting, must adapt immediately. Westworld series, thrown in without understanding but you adapt and understand through watching.
Bourdieu, set of flexible rules that guide behavior in life. Our actions are not spontaneous, follow a template.
Form of position taking
bourdieu, when adopting new media you position yourself within a community. There is an inherent hierarchy of winners and losers where those with authority and credibility are allowed in
Baudrillard & Content
today's content is all just remixes of the old. We can no longer tell the difference between the mediated and unmediated. This then distorts reality because we're fed information through ideologies, producers, bias. We value originality/genuineness and thus media matters.
Radio, TV, and Modern Life, Scannell
All about what we choose to care about, how we use our time.
Mediation is key part in how production becomes a part of our lives and subtly shapes our experiences. Programming is organized around certain times of day. Infinite amount of time, finite events that lead to cyclical linear nature of our experience with it.
Temporality of media/Dailiness: broadcast media gives us a sense of time of day, structures our day per programming. This creates a synchronized experience connecting people. This is being challenged through on-demand services, audiences are gaining agency.
Media can transport us to new places with new ways to come together, new types of existences.
Scannell, routine in which broadcast media has given us a sense of time and structure to our lives. Sunday Night Football, 7PM prime time after dinner, morning radio on commute.
scannell, different notions of time and our own experiences of time. Abstract: clock ticks regardless of human experience
subjective/experiential: "me time"
Scannell, way in which media shapes our understandings and life. Media is in the middle as an active space of social recognition
Temporality of media
Scannell, How we experience time is fundamental to how broadcasting has become a part of media rituals and they fundamentally shape our experience of time. Ex: Sunday night football at 6PM every week
phenomenology of media
study of peoples' conscious experience of the world/media and their experience as a member of the greater public
Time & Space, Schivelbush
media has transformed/destroyed the relativity and idea of time and space, changing the scale and scope of human affairs. Internet connects us globally, on-demand overcomes geographical boundaries
Scott & Time/Space/Identity
example of turkish TV. People who are closer in identity to the middle east were under Russian control. Now with internet they can connect to Turkish programming that is more inline with their identity, provides social capital-> uniting them as something. Emphasized the idea of the consciousness of "us"
study of media environments and the way the they effect human perception, understanding, feeling and value
Contemporary Journalism, Hartley
emphasizes time over space. Has led to increased value of identity based on nation and geographical form of community
Character gets caught in living the same say until he starts to take the rituals, values, and beliefs of his community sincerely.
He gets trapped in the day until he starts to believe in the care-structures of his community
Centra organizing principle of broadcasting (person, term)
doubling of place
media allow us to experience remote distant space in real-time brining remote spaces together and eliminating farness
Our being is defined by what we care about, that is, our care structures
Markham, Media and Technology
As screens become more embedded, the less we realize we're using them. Tech has introduced the network society with people coming together in unrestricted ways.
Technological changes occur in cultural contexts and influences people while people influence them.
Need to look at media and tech not for its revolutionary qualities but how people domesticated it and seeing how media as a medium is asking you to engage with it, does it affect you?
New technology creates good and bad cultural change. Innovation often have unintended consequences and are shaped by the social context of the time.
Top-down, causes change to social structure
looking at tech not for it's revolutionary tech, but how people got hold of it, what they did with it, and how they felt about it
People are less likely to share something that the are unsure about. Or they worry that they'll be seen as naive and it will be saved forever, shared globally.
new technology may make formats in which things are saved now obsolete. No more 1s and 0s to save photos.
Network Society, Castells
About how social structures are enabled through information and digitization-> TOP DOWN because the internet and social media and reworking how we live
networks are self-configurable, decentralized structures of communication.
Allows for people to circumvent power structures, anyone can be a hacker and have access to information.
Network makes time and space irrelevant, all happening simultaneously connecting the globe
Information has become more difficult to control and value of communication/info has globalized-all because of inherent properties of technology
castells, society whose social structure is made of networks powered by micro electronics and communication technologies. Decentralized, focused on nodes.
Technologies are reworking how we interact, top down
Network Societies are an increasingly efficient form of organization because
flexibility: networks reconfigure based on changing environments. Decentralized
Scalability: can change size with minimal disruption
Survivability: can limit damage to single node, no center
space of flows
castells, technological and organization possibility of using media simultaneously without physical connection, space doesn't matter.
Space of flows is superceding space of places
castells, network society makes time irrelevant, events become simultaneous rather than ordered. Its fragmented, disconnected
Culture of global network society
castells, there is a culture of protocols of communication between all cultures in the world. This is developed on the basis of a common belief in the power of networking and of the synergy obtained through these connections
NETWORK IS RECONFIGURING HOW WE ACT, All based on shared protocols
McLuhan & Media/Temporality
Fish & Water: Meaning, when you are exposed to something 24/7 you start to become accustomed to it's effect and become unfazed, lost sight of how it's changing society
The medium in the message, media is an extension of man. Need to understand the how
Communication & Cultural Literacy, Schirato
Semiotics is how signs produce meaning, how we understand them.
There is the word, then its secondary meaning -> signifier and signified. It is an ideological process created through language systems on the basis of difference
Also need to understand how combined, changes and adapts meanings-> denotation vs conotation
schirato, link between a concept and a sound pattern
signifier: sound of word
signified: concept that is evoked
Brands are way in which info is exchanged between producers and consumers
More than just an image, mark of social identity and are constantly transforming.
Key power and meaning is separated into awareness and image. Icon vs symbol
Recognition secures the familiarity of the brand. This is constant despite changes. This maintains the associations with the brand throughout time. Logo as a "person" creates an ongoing relationship.
Logos as shifters: mark the edge of aesthetics and value
Schirato & Saussur, study of how signs produce meaning and the processes by which we understand them. make sense of/socially organize the world.
Lury, obect or medium for the exchange or info between producers and consumers
lury, used as marks of social identities through their presentation as personalities, face, personas-> constantly changing
Key aspects of a logo/brand
Lury, Brand awareness vs image
awareness: when people are asked for a list of X (industry) they can give them. Name sodas: Coke, pepsi, sprite
image: the association that a brand holds for consumers, red & white -> coca cola
Logo/Brand as a "person"
Lury, Brands belong to families, have names, relationship built on trust, display one's values-> this creates not just a single exchange, but a lot relationship between consumers and brands
semiotics, studied how signs produce meaning and by extensions make sense of and socially organize the world
Process of Meaning
identify symbols, observe the interaction of symbols, extract meaning.
No single lens, many meanings. Users can choose to use some symbols and ignore others when looking for meaning
anything that produces meaning. Based on identity, social, relational, cultural factors
Very culturally specific
Levels of meaning in words
denotation: literal meaning
connotation: associated, secondary meaning
Cat example: elvis vs women
inequality and semiotics
ideologies promote inequality, distort reality in a way that people fail to see injustices-> pop culture and gender. Often an issue because they're binary examples. Black or white, men or women
New Media Worlds, Dwyer
Convergence is key to cultural changes, how we engage with media. It's accelerated by social, cultural, and structural responses to digitization
Has power to disrupt existing media through disintermediation, deconstruction. Internetization-mediatization is key for existing.
Biggest impact found in structural adaption of traditional media, changing character of content, and changing character of audience formation
Richness and reach are key factors in who wins audiences
technological, industrial, cultural, and social changes in the ways media circulates in our culture.
Synergies that come from digitization, consolidation into a single device
traditional media trying to adapt to changes due to digital tech
Biggest impact of media convergence w. def
structural adaptation of traditional media: uncertainty about the future of traditional media, how they should be reshaped for a multi-platform digital environment
changing character of content: highly commercialized online environments, subscription based
changing character of audience formation: emergence of new audiences that challenge existing orderly systems of media distribution
Aspects of richness
bandwidth, reliability, degree of customization, interactivity, security, currency
removal of intermediaries such as distributors or brokers that formerly linked a company to its customers
Dell and Apple selling directly to consumers, removing Best Buy & Circuit City
Introduction of a new intermediary in the distribution of media
Disintermediation vs reintermediation
Disintermediation involves the removal of intermediaries such as distributors or brokers that formerly linked a company to its customers
Reintermediation involves the creation of new intermediaries between customers and suppliers providing services such as supplier search and product evaluation
Jenkins, all about industrial shifts who are looking to take advantage of changing tech. Higher level of concentration of ownership but also more active voices as consumers are becoming producers
Role of content & geo-spacial power
Role of content has shifted, now more about how you make money through media.
Used to be SoCal producers of content. Now it's about NoCal tech companies with algorithms supplying the technology for users to create content. Content is coming back in the concept of new firms: netflix originals, youtube red
Divergence vs. Convergence
Jenkins, Fandoms and industrial convergence
Convergence works for tech, divergence is how content works. Creators develop a brand or content that people identify with and are willing to consume/produce. Divergence works with you spreading across platforms as a fan
UGC professionalized and monetized
stories and brand presented across multiple platforms. Harry potter book, video game, movies, etc.
stimulating and inviting audience to participate vs just viewing.
MLB site example: paid the league for footage, use computer to switch between games, stats, see more in terms of analytics vs emotions
Lessig, less original content, more about taking old content and remixing it to create new value
Jenkins, user is active, emotionally engage and socially networked. Fan will create content, communities based on brand. Brand becomes a way of life, blurring line of entertainment and message
Jenkins key ideas
affective economies and fandom
blurred line of consumers/producers. People aren't journalists engage on twitter, build a following to one day have a career. Today they care about your network, not talent.
Sort of exploitation
active audience theory
media audiences don't just receive information passively. They are actively involved in making sense of the message within their personal and social context
user gratification theory
individuals seek out media to satisfy internal psychological needs.
Markham: Mobility and Social Media
through domestication, media is a means of communication not technology. Platforms have unique features but they shape our behavior, expectations, etc.
Broken window syndrome
Social media can reproduce cultural norms, good and bad thing. It's a cultural space where our thoughts, words, and actions come to solidify into habits in daily life, they are shaped by the context in which they took form, and also where they help to shape and maintain context
Broken window syndrome
media platforms. If a window is broken and you don't fix it, more damage.
If you don't remove fake news, etc. then more will accumulate
If you fix a window directly, less likely to accumulate and happen again. Same with content, thus a reliable platform
Markham, good and bad thing
Network communities have connected people like never before, thus the power of one becomes many and brings us closest to reality.
People sense collectivity and able to turn affect (emotions) into effect (actions)
Good: Arab spring, people united to liberate
Bad: Boston Marathon crowd sourcing was based on bias and racism
Castells, social media creates fluid process of interpretation
network is an autonomous audience capable of using social media to express itself and is able to evade an attempt to control it.
Understanding Social Media, Hinton & Hjorth
Mobile devices extend user access and bring social media into places to create meaning as a place. Identity caravan
Mobile media has become key for social and locative media, shifting it from communication to networking method. Location based services are engrained in daily life.
Technologies add digital information to space to create new places that are mediated in part by technology itself->hybrid between online and offline.
hinton & hjorth
space with meaning ascribed to it
hinton & hjorth
phones amplify the "always on" nature of mobile media
Your phone mobilizes and contains the user's inner world/sense of home
senft, people with online identities that are a branded good, part of the economy of attention.
Andy Warhol Quote
Now with media and economy of attention
fame to 15 people not for 15 minutes
Pariser, media limits how we experience the world.
Africa Ex: When you google it, gives a euro view-> geographical, travel. No content created by africans or about culture, etc.
Markham, Media, Self & Identity
Meaning of media is whatever we collectively agree it to be.
Self-identity and identity management are key in this age-> always transforming
There are many forms of self, abandoning the idea one of original self is worthwhile-> escape the conditioning of youth, stops you from putting all that you are on the line each time you make a decision
Authenticity is prized in today's culture. Need media for self-affirmation (this is who I am) but also way to understand what it means to be human in a changing environment. Balance of innovation and adaptation is key to maintaining stable self through media
Link between the self and the social
IDENTITY IS ASCRIBED
understanding who you are, always a mix of what makes us fit in and stand out.
the way in which you become you. What you pay attention to in the media shapes who you are, indicates your value
Abandoning the idea of the original self reasons
escape the conditioning of your youth
don't have to put it all that you are on the line every time you make a decision
Authenticity is key
common with new social media economy, sense of personal branding. Want to make sure you come across in a consistent way.
Kylie is beauty, fashion-> advertising act books isn't in her identity/brand
Making Selfies/the Self, Warfield
Selfies are a way in which people can put on different masks: stage, billboard, mirror, etc.
convergence of old and new tech, way to engage in the social sphere. Identity making practice
Selfies are a form of therapeutic negotiation of the self. It's about discovering relationship between the process of taking the photo and the person, and what does it mean for subjectivities of women.
Stuart Hall, Media Representation
Race is a floating signifier that is used to understand ourselves. Filled with meaning by societies as of means of power and way to justify horrific wrongdoings.
Black Skin, White Mask Fanon
Explores relationship of colonized vs colonizers, identity, and otherness. We create cultural cliches and racist ideas that many fall into the trap of applying to themselves. Shatters the identity of colorized people
identity is long and winding process that is created to celebrate and shame aspects of society
All about power
Power isn't passed on through government. It's found in our everyday actions. Cultures collectively agree and enforce what is good and proper. It is productive, discourse allows us to create norms and vales.
identity is a harrowing process that allows society to vilify and celebrate certain aspects
Top Down Scholars
McLuhan, Castells, Anderson
Bottom Up Scholars
Silverstone, Couldry, Scannell
top down theories
Bottom up theories
media rituals, domestication, identity, audiences
identities are discursively produced
Identities are socially produced through the way powerful institutions in society, such as the media, law and medicine, frame and value particular social groups through language use
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