Honors Biology Evolution Exam Material
Terms in this set (20)
Explain Darwins ideas of evolution and the mechanics of it
Darwin, set his ideas on paper in 1844, when he wrote a long essay on descent with modification and its underlying mechanism, natural selection. Decent with modification is simply the passing of traits from parent to offspring and this concept is one of the fundamental ideas behind Charles Darwins theory of evolution. You pass on to your children in a process known as heredity. The unit of heredity is a gene. A gene is like a blueprint for how the person will be. However if your child does not get your exact blueprint, they are clones of you, rather your jeans combine with your partners jeans and small. Changes and mutations may occur along the way. If you have multiple children, you know there's a different mix of jeans that are combined for each child. This means that the gene pool is continuously adjusting based on who is reproducing and how their genes are combined during the production of offspring. Over extended periods of time, evolution takes place. It's underlying mechanism, natural selection, is the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment 10 to survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its action was first fully expanded by Charles Darwin in this now believe to be the main process that brings about evolution.
Name and explain all the evidence for evolution
The evidence is for evolution are directly observing evolution homologous structures, vestigial structures, analogous structures, Bio geography, embryology, and molecular homologues. Explain each.
Explain directly observing evolution
Two examples of directly observing evolution are soapberry bug and drug resistant S. Aureas. The Soapberry bug eat seeds of the balloon vine fruit (circular) And uses beaks to access seeds. The best adapted soapberry bugs are the bugs with a beak length that is the same as the distance from the skin to the seed of the fruit. When the population of balloon vine fruit declines, and the golden rain tree population increases, (The golden Raintree have fruit with seeds that are closer to the skin) The best adapted bugs then, are those with shorter beaks compared to those that ate balloon fruit seeds.
Explain homologous structures
Structures that organisms have that look similar, but have different functions. And example of this would be bones in the forelimbs of humans, bats, cats, Whales, and alligators. This is because they have a common ancestor.
explain vestigial structures
Structures that the Current organism has, but it doesn't serve a useful function. It was useful for their ancestor. Examples would be the tailbone and the appendix. Also the hip bone in Whales and snakes.
explain analogous structures
Structures that are similar in shape and function but are not due to common ancestry. Examples would be a moth, a bird, and a bat.
One species is selected by continental Drift which alters the environment leading to the two species evolving differently.
The study of embryos. At some stage in the embryonic development all embryos look similar.
Explain molecular homologs
Amino acid sequence of a protein. DNA sequence of a gene.
What Hardy Weinberg conditions directly affect allele frequency's?
Natural selection, genetic drift, bottleneck effect, founder effect, and gene flow.
Explain natural selection
Those that are best adapted to the environment live longer and produce more offspring than those that are not. Which means that more of their alleles go into the gene pool which causes the frequency of the beneficial olio to go up in the non-beneficial allele to go down.
Genetic drift explain
A random chance event causes the allele frequency to change in a small population.
Founder effect explain
When a group of individuals become isolated from the main population and they have two different allele frequency's.
A random chance event or disaster, that causes a large decrease in the population which causes genetic variation to go down. Example prairie chickens.
Explain Gene flow
Movement of alleles throughout the population. Coming in. If more dominant's come in, allele frequency's become more. Increased, if more recessive come in allele frequency's go down.
Explain how to find a population is evolving
How do tectonic plates move and what can each movement cause
Convergent plates come together, and divergent plates move away from each other. Transforming plates slide past eachother.
What can a divergent movement of tectonic plates cause
When plates are divergent, it means that they are moving away from each other. Along divergent boundaries, or rifts, earthquakes often occur. Beneath the divergent boundaries or rift, magma oozes Up to the mantle, and into the gap between the tectonic plates, hardening into solid rock. Forming new crust, on the torn edged of the plates. Once on the mantle, the solid rock the magma hardens into is basalt, The rock that makes up the oceanic crust, what is thinner and denser than the less dense and thicker continental crust. Therefore, at divergent boundaries, oceanic crust is formed.
What can A convergent movement of tectonic plates cause
When plates are convergent, it means that they are moving towards each other. Along convergent boundaries, The edges of the plates are either pushed up into mountain ranges. Or down into A deep trench. If one of the colliding plates is topped with oceanic crust, it is forced down into the mantle where it begins to melt. Magma rises into and through the other plate, solidifying into new crust. Magma formed from melting plates solidifies into granite, a light colored, low-density rock that makes up the continents. Thus at convergent boundaries, continental crust, made of granite, is created, and oceanic crust is destroyed.
What can A transforming movement cause
When plates are transforming, it means they are sliding past eachother. Two plates sliding past each other forms a transform plate boundary. Natural or human-made structures that cross a transform boundary are offset—split into pieces and carried in opposite directions. Rocks that line the boundary are pulverized as the plates grind along, creating a linear fault valley or undersea canyon. As the plates alternately jam and jump against each other, earthquakes rattle through a wide boundary zone. In contrast to convergent and divergent boundaries, no magma is formed. Thus, crust is cracked and broken at transform margins, but is not created or destroyed.