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Micro exam 1
Terms in this set (66)
part of bacteria that would likely have this unusual peptide --> (L-ala) (D-ala) (L-Lys) (D-ala)
cell wall (peptidoglycan)
when you perform the limulus lysate test you see what happens/in response to what contaminant
the limulus lysate forms a gel/in presence of endotoxin (LPS)
which does not usually happen when a patient has large amounts of endotoxin?
blood pressure rises
what enzyme is found in large amounts in tears produced by the eyes
teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid would most likely be found on what bacteria?
what bacteria has a gram positive cell wall (staph aureus, e.coli, or Mycoplasma pneumonia)
what bacteria doesnt have a cell wall?
what bacteria has gram negative cell wall
humans can chemically modify (PHB) to produce what product?
a biodegradable plastic
what bacteria structure has large amounts of dipicolinic acid?
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is involved in what types of infections?
burn, respiratory tract of patients with CF and in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, external ear canal, and hair follicles of people using hot tubs
what bacteria is one of the major causes of gas gangrene
what about rocky mt. spotted fever is completely correct?
caused by Rickettsia parkeri, transmitted by a tick, symptoms include headache, chills, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting; bout 90% of patients develop a non-itchy rash on their trunk, appendages, (palms + soles) treatment = doxycycline or chloramphenical
what isnt part of the treatment for gas gangrene
expose tissue to UV radiation
what is true about vaccination for smallpox
some, but not all, military personnel are vaccinated
negative stain is good for visualizing what cell structure?
what 2 virulence factors do staph aureus and staph epiderminis have?
lipase and polysaccharide slime layer
ointment used to treat staph infections has what antibiotic in it?
skin disease with small red patches that eventually break and leave crust
skin disease with reddening of skin + a distinct margin
skin disease that starts as a rash and ends with large amounts of tissue being destroyed
what bacteria genus is primary cause of acne
what is NOT a good treatment for acne
removing chocolate and oily foods from the diet
what statement about bartonella henselae is correct?
bacteria causes cat scratch disease. primary virulence factor is endotoxin. the treatment is azithromycin
what structure contains hamus (hooks)
some types of fimbriae
what length is typical bacteria or archaea
what kind of microscope reveals relationship among microbes within biofilms
what high magnification microscope can be used to examine living things
atomic force microscope
what bacteria would not stain well with the gram stain?
what are the body areas infected by HHV-1 vs. HHV-2
HHV-1 = oral infections
HHV-2 - genital infections
percentage of papillomaviruses that can integrate into human DNA and trigger cancers?
what drug shouldnt be taken by children with symptoms of chicken pox?
most severe complication that can occur when a person has Rubella?
there can be severe birth defects or death of fetus
Where do the Koplik spots appear?
in the mucous membrane of the mouth
fungal skin disease / its causative agent to be considered when person develops skin patches
pityriasis versicolor/Malassezia furfur
one of the fungi that can cause athletes foot
fungus that infects person after being pricked by a plant thorn like a rose
primary pathogen of cutaneous leishmaniasis is what type of microbe/what is the vector?
what 3 bacteria caused a large percentage of meningitis cases before vaccines?
N. meningitides, H. influenza, and S. pneumonia
listeria monocytogenes can move through cells due to listeria's ability to polymerize what protein?
what part of the human body would mycobacterium leprae NOT grown well in?
what food can adults safely eat, but can botulism when eaten by infants?
what polio virus vaccine is used today and why?
salk vaccine: inactivated polio bc it will not mutate to a virulent virus that causes polio
what arboviral encephalitis virus kills the highest % of people it infects?
the one that causes Eastern Equine encephalitis
what yeast fungus can cause meningitis / what is the animal or bird vector
cryptococcus / birds
how is the protozoan T. brucei able to prevent antibody from binding to it
the protozoan is making new surface glycoprotein that the antibody cannot recognize
what bacteria is the most common cause of conjunctivitis of the eye
what 2 amoebas can cause primary amebic meningoencephalopathy?
Acanthamoeba and Naegleria
what order is correct: more closely related to humans --> more distantly related to humans
fungi, archaea, bacteria
smallest to largest
influenza virus, pandora virus, fungi
what bacteria activity is currently never a target for antibiotics
2 aspects of membrane lipids of archaea that differ from bacteria
ether linkage and the membrane is a mix of lipid monolayers and lipid bilayers
smallest of all infectious agents
what is NOT a rule that helped to dramatically decrease the incidence of mad cow disease?
all meat products must be treated with x-rays to inactivate the prions
if you gram stain an exudate from a man with gonorrhea urethra, what would you see?
gram negative cocci or diplococci
what is correct about gram staining characteristics of old cultures of bacteria?
some of the old gram + may stain gram - and some of the old gram - will stain gram -
what specific part of the cell envelope makes mycobacteria very resistant to antibiotics; also why they grow slowly
mycolic acid (wax) and surface glycolipids
if you see a chain of gram + cocci you are looking at what bacteria?
what bacteria is a short rod known as cocco-bacillary
what bacteria is a spirochete and can corkscrew into tissue
what bacteria can sometimes pass through a filter designed to remove bacteria
what type of glycocalyx does a bacteria produce that allows them to stick to surfaces and produce biofilm
a slime layer
term for flagella that cover entire surface of bacteria
besides glycocalyx, what structure do bacteria produce that allows them to stick?
a cell wall with both teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid
gram + cell wall
bacteria cell wall with an outermembrane?
gram - cell wall
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