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Earth's Changing Surfaces

Vocabulary Review for the Earth's Changing Surfaces Unit Exam
The chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface
The process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered rock and soil
The geological principle that the same geologic processes that operate today operated in the past to change Earth's surface
The grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind
Chemical Weathering
The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes.
Causes of Chemical Weathering (Hint: There Are 5)
(1) Action of water; (2) Oxygen; (3) Carbon Dioxide; (4) Living Organisms; (5) Acid Rain
Mechanical Weathering
The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
Causes of Mechanical Weathering (Hint: There Are 5)
(1) Freezing and thawing; (2) Release of pressure; (3) Plant growth; (4) Actions of animals; (5) Abrasion
Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
Mass Movement
Any one of several processes by which gravity moves sediment downhill
Types of Mass Movement (Hint: There Are 4)
(1) Landslides; (2) Mudflows; (3) Slump; (4) Creep
A force that moves rocks and other materials downhill
Earth materials deposited by erosion. Sediment may consist of pieces of rock or soil or the remains of plants and animals.
Water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground
Flood Plain
Wide valley through which a river flows
A looplike bend in the course of a river
Oxbow Lake
A meander cut off from a river
Alluvial Fan
A wide, sloping deposit of sediment formed where a stream leaves a mountain range
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake
Water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers
A calcite deposit that hangs from the roof of a cave
A cone-shaped calcite deposit that builds up from the floor of a cave
A large mass of moving ice and snow on land
Continental Glacier
A glacier that covers much of a continent or large island
Valley Glacier
A long, narrow glacier that forms when snow and ice build up in a mountain valley
Ice Age
Times in the past when continental glaciers covered large parts of Earth's surface
The process by which a glacier picks up rocks as it flows over the land
The sediments deposited directly by a glacier
A ridge formed by the till deposited at the edge of a glacier
A small depression that forms when a chunk of ice is left in glacial till
A part of the shore that sticks out into the ocean
Wave-washed sediment along a coast
Longshore Draft
The movement of water and sediment down a beach caused by waves coming in to shore at an angle
A beach formed by longshore drift that projects like a finger out into the water
Sand Dune
A deposit of wind-blown sand
Wind erosion that removes surface materials
A wind-formed deposit made of fine particles of clay and silt

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