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China Quiz study guide
Terms in this set (32)
What is the relationship between World War II and Indian Independence?
During WWII the British had informed the Indians that they would have to fight for the allies in the war even though they were being denied their own independence. This caused outrage and many political leaders to speak and begin a nonviolent protest. They advocated for self rule and wanted to achieve it through nonviolent protests lead by Ghandi
What did the Muslim League in India advocate for in 1940?
they advocated for a partition (division) of India and the creation of separate Muslim and Hindu countries. They did this because the Muslims feared that an independent democratic India would be dominated by India's large Hindu Population and wanted to protect their rights. This was because they were fearful of discrimination as a minority.
What political, social and economic changes took place in India after independence?
Jawaharlal Nehru was the prime minister shortly after India declared independence and he was considered a conductor of change.
-He emphasized the need for unity and economic and social reforms, as well as a respect for democratic ideals.
-broke down the caste system
-worked to increase the legal rights for women
-improve the lives of the poor
-prevented discrimination based on inherited status.
-He utilized modern science and technology to improve its industry and agriculture.
What challenges do the nations of South Asia face today?
-civil wars between east and west pakistan
-Struggles with poverty and dense population (Bangladesh)
-ethnic and religious conflicts including the role of Islam in the government (Pakistan)
-nuclear weapon threats, both India and Pakistan have weapons in possesion
- religious and ethnic differences
What is self-strengthening as it relates to anti-imperialism? How was it applied differently in China and Japan?
A strategy/ reform that called for China to adopt European Military technology and education systems previously done by Japan, China did not want to adopt the reform
Who was Sun Yat Sen and what were his three principles of the People?
The president of the provisional republic, he created a new government based on Nationalism with a senate, lower house, and almost a constitution. His party was the Guomingdong. His three principles were nationalism, democracy, and the people's livelihood.
What were the two sides of the Chinese Civil War?
Nationalists and communists
How was the Chinese Civil War impacted by WWII?
Japan's defeat set off a race between the nationalists and communists to control vital resources and population centres in northern China and Manchuria. the troops would only cooperate until Japan had been defeated. Neither side could afford to pursue internal ains at the cost of the national struggle. This lead to more corruption of the Nationalists, leaving the communists to an advantage as 1945 ended.
What does peasant support of the communists say about the way Marxism was applied in China?
the peasants had long been oppressed by brutal landlords and high taxes, as long as the policies of the Jiang Jieshi's corrupt government. They wanted communism because the peasants saw it as an opportunity to gain back some of their lost land. This shows that at the time marxism was greatly applied to china as land got taken away from landlords and the land was distributed.
Why was communism attractive to western chinese in the 1930s?
It gained importance in the 1920s because of the Guomindang nationalists, which had previously consolidated with the communist party in order to unite against a common external threat. Communists proved they were the only organized group that could resist the imperialists and thus assured their position as leading political force. Additionally, the international economy had fallen into a depression in the 1930s, and many Chinese were struggling. However, the communists offered an attractive alternative.
What were the pros and cons of rebuilding China in the early years of communism?
-set up five year plans
-China's small industry output doubled
-economy was improved
-rural poverty was reduced
-large amount of support
-improved literacy rates
-increased public health and chinese life expectancy
-government eliminated "enemies of the state"
-thousands of chinese were killed or sent to labor camps in the early years of the communist rule
What was the purpose of the great leap forward and what were some of its results?
after differences in ideology between China and the SU, Mao made a program to break free from current SU influence. This program was designed to increase China's industrial and agricultural output.
-created thousands of communes (collectively owned farms) --- this was a disaster and the farms failed to produce the amount of food china needed --- famine spread
- China became virtually isolated in the world community (no longer had the support of the Soviet Union)
How did life in china change during the cultural revolution?
the cultural revolution sought to rid China of its old ways and create a society in which peasants and physical labor were the ideal. This changed China by eliminating intellectuals such as teachers, skillled workers, and artists. Mao did so because he feared that those people would be the ones to end communism and bring China's old ways back.
Mao shut down schools and and encouraged militant aged high school and college students (RED GUARDS) to carry out the work of the cultural revolution
Was Maoist China a success?
No, he put too much power in the hands of the Red Guards and lost control of the movement, murdering hundreds of thousands of people before stopping it. This put China on the verge of a Civil war before Mao managed to regain control. The cultural revolution caused terrible destruction, leaving many areas with a collapsed civil authority and a failing economy- all due to Mao's plans and ideas for China.
What happened in Tiananmen Square in 1989?
more than 1 million pro-democracy protests occupied Beijing's Tiananmen Square. after the protest grew too large, the Chinese leaders and government decided to crack down and sent in tanks and troops. many protestors were killed and the famous photo of the tank man came from the event. Today, very few chinese know about Tiananmen square because the government heavily regulates their media. China doesn't want the public to see what happened at Tiananmen square because they are afraid another protest could occur or the public could see the resistance to the communist government.
Is there an equal distribution of wealth in China?
Currently, in china, there is not an equal distribution of wealth. As the government continues to build up economically, there is a greater influence of an upper class while those who have lived in china for a while may be living in the lower class and have poor living conditions. This can be seen through the concept of
"reform and openness"
, seen through a large segment of the population is left behind while China builds up (skyscrapers).
- deplorable conditions, people getting ground up from the government.
How does wealth distribution vay on rural/ urban lines?
There is a significant gap between the upper and lower classes, with 46.6% of China's income in the richest 20% and 4.7% in the poorest 20%.Rural dweller in China make considerably less than urban dwellers. The ratio of urban to rural income was 2.8:1 in 2000 and 3.3:1 in 2006. In Guizhou, the average rural income was just 22% or the average urban income.
How has China's internationalism shifted from pre-1949, post-1495, and post-1978?
pre-1949: China was highly internationalized and its modernity was shaped by constant interaction with the outside world.
post-1949: The Mao era saw China look inward more and more
post 1978: China has embraced the outside world with enthusiasm.
This shows that China is no longer isolated and has been succeeding all around the world.
What is China's growing, consumptive middle class doing to its resources? What might the future hold as a result?
the growing middle class has put an immense strain on resources. China now faces an energy crisis as there is a great strain on supplies such as fossil fuels. they have the potential to move to the west, but the west lacks water. China has topped carbon emissions for all countries and its effects on the global environment could be catastrophic.
Why does China have a one party system?
China became a one-party system due to its lack of a democratic tradition after maintaining dynastic rule for millennia. Marxism is the only modern ideology that had one political party without democracy, promising modernization and progress without the evils of liberalism (such as political fragmentation, clashes of interests, and periods of political crisis).
How Marxist is Mao's thought?
Mao is not Marxist so much as simply radical. He focused more on nationalism than socialism and saw imperialism as a more significant threat than capitalism. His writings differ significantly from writings of communist leaders in a manner consistent with this analysis.
What was Mao's revolutionary ire directed against? who was it not directed against?
directed against--> rich peasants because they were big exploiters of the labour
not against --> proprietary industrial class
Why is there a willingness in China to make economic reforms but not democratic reforms?
China's government is likely willing to make economic reforms because it will benefit them, but they fear that democratic reforms may cause them to lose power in China.
What are some challenges faced by China today?
-population growth, the population is growing at an exponential rate so there have been one child laws for families to not over produce.
- rapidly expanding industries place high demands on the nation's resources and environment
- China has been forced to import enormous qualities of coal, iron ore, oil, and natural gas to meet its energy and resource needs.
-widespread air and water pollution in china
- human right abuses through the limit to free speech and religous freedoms, along with strict control over the media.
What is the difference between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China?
People's Republic of China: mainland, single-party (CCP), market-based socialism/authoritarian capitalism
Republic of China: Taiwan, democratic, mostly Buddhist
How is China divided economically in terms of population density?
the east, which is more densely populated, has more economic wealth while the west, which is less densely populated, has less economic wealth.
Eastern China is both more industrialized and has more cultivated land than western China. This is largely because western China is the Plateau of Tibet (with some desert) and is much drier and a higher elevation than eastern China.
What is the Chang Jiang (yangtze) and why is it important to China?
the Chang Jiang is the 3rd largest river in the world and the largest river in Asia.
It drains 1/5 of the land area of the PRC (20% of runoff goes into the yangtze).
The river basin is home to one-third of the PRC's population
What is the Three Gorges Dam?
largest dam in the world, the massive reservoir behind it produces hydroelectric power (about 80- 90 billion Kilowatts/ year)
controls floods and allows for more consistent transportation.
What is the Huang He?
also known as the Yellow River. It is the "Mother River", the cradle of chinese civilization because it is the birthplace of Chinese civilization. Also known as "China's Sorrow" due to the floods that are known to damage crops.
What is the One Child Policy, how is it enforced, and why was it abandoned?
The one child policy was established to limit the birth rate and reduce population growth that the country couldn't support. The Policy only allowed for 1 child per family, and if you had a girl then you could try again. This is because males were more desirable for the chinese population due to their ability to provide more and were better for labor. This is why so many adopted kids are chinese girls. The methods used to control this were abortion and putting up your kid for adoption. If a family had more than one child they would have to pay a
family planning task
Is China homogeneous ethnically and linguistically?
No, there are 56 different ethnolinguistic groups with the Han being the most dominant group.
How polluted is China?
Very polluted. China uses coal which produces a significant amount of pollution. China does not have any regulations or policies for pollution since the government prioritizes their economy over environmental health since regulations chunk into the revenue of businesses. There can't be any activists against pollution because Civil Actions are restricted and the people who want to solve the pollution problem don't have a voice to do so.
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