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Which of the following is the most accurate statement about political parties in the United States?
A) Parties increasingly identigy themselves with coherent ideologies to attract large large blocs of voters.
B) The percentage of voters identifying themselves as either Democrats or Republicans has been declining since the 1970's.
C) National party organizations are generally the strongest party organizations.
D) It is increasingly difficult for third parties to gain more than two percent of the popular vote.
E) Most candidates prefer to run as independents rather than Democrats or Republicans
Political parties serve which of the following functions in the United States?
I. Informing the public about political parties.
II. Mobilizing voters and getting them to the polls.
III. Organizing diverse interests within society.
IV. Establishing the rules governing financial contributions to political candidates
I, II, and III only
Which of the following statements best describes the organization of the two major political parties in the United States?
A) Parties have no organization except at the national level.
B) Parties are centrally organized to provide a smooth transisiotion from one national campaign to the next
C) Decisions flow from national to state and local levels
D) Local and state parties have virtually no power in the party system
E) Separate and largely independent party organizations exist at national, state, and local levels
Rational-choice theory asserts that
A) the wise party selects policies that are widely favored
B) the parties shoudl not be expected to differentiate themselves in any way
C) more extremeist part positions give the public a sense that things can really be changed, and usually win elections.
D) the wise party selects policies in which it truly believes and gives the voters a chance to vote them up or down on principle
E)political parties are centralized and unified organized institutions throughout the US
The concept of "critical elections" is most closely associated with
A) the electoral process
B) elections during wartime
C) the nomination process
D) a plurality election
E) party realignment
A political party is best defined as
A) a group of men and women organized for the sole pupose of influencing public policy
B) an organized team of men and women with a political agenda
C) Any group of men and women with a formal membership and a political or social purpose stated in their by-laws
D) a group of men and women seeking control of the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election
E) A coalition of interests trying to ingluence government policies for their benefit
The term "party machine" usually refers to a
A) large national party organization that is heirarchically structured
B) local party organization that relies heavily on the voluntary labor of all its members
C) local party organization that is tightly disciplined and well staffed and relies on patronage to create party loyalty
D) party organization in which political favors are distributed by national leaders in repayment for large contributions
E) party organization in which major platform decisions are made behind closed doors rather than at national conventions
Which of the followign best describes the differences between an open and closed primary?
A) Voters must pay a poll tax to vote in a closed primary but not an open primary
B) Voters are allowed to split their ticket in a closed primary but not in open
C) only voters who register as members of a political pary may bote in theat party's closed primary while independents and other may be eligible to vote in open primaries
D) open primaries require a run off sustem
E) Candidates must seek approval of the party organization to run in a vlosed primary but anyone may be a candidate in an open primary
Since the early 1980's the republican party platform has been increasingly influenced by
A) environmental activists
B) evangelical Christians
C) civil libertarians
D) labor unions
E) active military officers
The term "split ticked voting" is most accurately described as
A) turning in a spoiled or mutilated ballot as a form of protest
B) voting Republican in one election cycle and Democratic in the next
C) voting for candidates of different parties on the same ballot
D) Voting for one party in the primary and for another party in the general election
E) Using separate ballots for candidates at the state and national levels
All of the following are problems with political machines EXCEPT:
A) the traded votes for favors
B) they rarely delived on their promises to help new immigrants
C) the federal bureaucracy grew with unnecessary jobs
D) unqualified peopel were given governmetn positions
E) party followers felt obligated to keep working for the party
All of the following characterize a period of critical realightment EXCEPT
A) when voters become apathetic and turnout falls below 50%
B) a series of crises, resulting in a reaction against the two major parties
C) the major defeat of a party, with another party taking its place
D) when a new issue of omportance to voters cuts across existing party divisions
E) A major shift in the coalistions supporting political parties
Long standing third parties such as the Socialist, Libertarian, and Green Parties are examples of
A) Ideological parties
B) one issue parties
C) economic protest parties
D) factional parties
E) splinter parties
When the republican party emerged in the 1850"s it replaced which party
The most successful third paries
A) represent a particular region of the country
B) have strong ties to an ideological position
C) break off from one of the two major parties
D) focus on a single issue
E) support a particular group
A primary election in which a registered Democrat can ask for a Republican ballor is a
A) open primary
B) closed primary
C) blanket primary
D) a straight ticket vote
E) a split ticket vote
Why did the framers fear a political party system?
A) they thought that parites would be a forum for corruption and divisiveness
B) they were concerned that parties would make governmetn too user friendly for ordinary voters
C) they thought that there was room for more thatn two parties and feared that only two would create a stalemate
D) They were concerned that the party system would be used to bring down the new government
E) they believed that a two-party system would end up making the country resemble Great Britain
Which critical election say a realighment of pary coalitions and saw the beginning of the domination fo the Republican party?
Which of the following is not considered a reason why people vote for a third party?
A) Third Parties are policy advocates
B) Third parties function as safety valves for the disgruntled
C) Third parties allows voters to voice their discontent
D) third parties advocate for the majority
E) third parties may be used a s aprotest vote
Which of the following best explains why the US has a two party system?
A) The Constitution madnates a two- party system
B) Federal laws mandate a two-party system
C) In every state except California, state laws madnate a two-party system
D) Seats in Congress are awarded according to the principles of proportional representation
E) Seats in Congress are awarded on a winner take all basis
Political parties play an important role in democracy because they
A) guarantee voters radically different choices of policy outcomes
B) offer politicians unique identities
C) connect the public with policymaking institutions
D) contribute to a centralized federal government
E) control each of the three branches of government
Which of the following describes a fundamental difference between policital parites and interest groups?
A) political parties are prohibited from sponsoring campaign ads and interest groups are not
B) political parties are more likely to focus on national politics whereas interest froups focus on local politics
C) Political parties tend to have strength in particular regions whereas the power of interest groups is more consistent across states
D) political parties are required to disclose their campaign finance activities whereas interest frousp are not
E) political parties represent broad arrays of issue wheras interest froups are more likely to focus on narrow sets of issues
Interest groups engage in all of the following activities EXCEPT:
A) testifying before congressional committees
B) sponsoring issue advocacy ads
C) lobbying federal agencies
D) using the franking privilege
E) filing federal lawsuits
Which of the following factors best accounts for the rise of interest froups and the decline of political parties in recent years?
A) National parties have become too closely identified with controversial issues
B) Court decisions have restricted the political parties' abilities to recruit new members
C) Interest groups are better able to articulate specific policy positions than are political parties
D) It is less expensive to hoin an interest forup than to join a political party
E) Interest groups have been more successful in avoiding negative press coverage than have political parties
Which of the following statements about political parties and the US Constitution is true?
A) according to the COnstitution, only two major political parties may exist at one time
B) the Constitution requires political parties to be restricted by both federal and state law
C) The constitution indicated that political party leaders at the national level be elected by political party leaders at the state level
D) The Consitution specifies that political party leaders must be native- born US citizens
E) the issue of political parties is not addressed in teh Consitution
One reason for persistence of a two-party system in the US is
A) the lackof divisive issues in US politics
B) the separation of powers
C) the single-member district electoral system
D) the lackof a strong labor movement
E) low voter turnout in most elections
All of the following explain the proliferation of interest fgroups EXCEPT
A) interest groups often run candidates for office to give their supporters a voice in government
B) America is diverse with countless immigrants, races, and religions
C) because of its federal system, there are multiple points of access to the governmetn
D) political authority is shared by several branches of governemtn, each of which might be targeted by interest frousp
E) political parties are relatively weak, which helps explain the strength and number of interest groups
Interest groups and political parties both promote US democracy by
A) expresing detailed, ideologically distinct programs
B) centralizing public authority
C) increasing domination fo the political process by elites
D) linking citizens to the political process
E) lobbying members of congress
An interest group is most likely to have influence in Congress when the issue at stake
A) is part of the president's legislative package
B) has been dramatized by the media
C) engages legislator' deeply held convictions
D) divides legislators along party lines
E) is narrow in scope and low in public visibility
A special interest group would probably have the greatest success dealing with a legislator regarding public policy issues that
A) were favored by the public as reflected by polls
B) the legislator need specific information about which the group could provide
C) the president also supported
D) were controversial in nature
E) had previously been voted on by Congress but defeated
Lobbyists try to influence legislators mainly through
A) "Wining and dining"
B) orchestrating petition drives and letter-writing campaigns
C) placeing persuasive ads in the media
D) threatening to help the legislator's opponents in teh next election
providing legislators with information on technical issues
A corporate lobbyist would be LEAST likely to have an informal discusssion about a pending policy matter with which of the following?
A) a member of the House in whose district the corporation has a plant
B) a member of the White House staff concerned about the issue
C) a member of the staff of the Senate committee handling a matter of concern to the corporation
D) a federal judge in whose courta acase important to the corportaion is bein held
E) A journalist for a major newspaper converned about hte issue
Lobbyists try ot influence public policy by all of the following EXCEPT
A) meeting with federal districk judges
B) mobilizing grassroots support
C) testifying before congressional committtees
D) speaking with heads of federatl agencies
E) providing research data to government officials
What is the primary function of PACs
A) serve as fund-raising organizations for challengers
B) provide members of OCngress with unbiased information regarding proposed legislation
C) consult wiht the President regarding domestic policy
D) encourage broader participation in politics among the electorate
E) raise campaign funds to support favored candidates
A major difference between political parties and interest groups is that
A) interest groups typically shift their positions on issues over time, while political parties tend to keep the same position on issues over time
B) political parties seek to gain control of governmetn, while interest groups seek to influence public policy
C) interest groups usually recruit candidates for office, while political parties usually limit themselves to making campaign contributions to candidates
D) political parties tent ot have narrow coalitions of support and internest groups tend ot have broad coalitions of support
E) political parties usually focus mainly on many issues
Which of the following is a correct statement about political action committees (PAC's)?
A) The number of PAC's has remained stable over hte past decade
B) Most PC money is distributed to challengers in an effort to unseat hostile incumbents
C) PAC's are illegal in most states
D) PAC's rarely attempt to influence legislation through lobbying activities
E) The amount of money that PAC's contribute directly to an individual candidate is limited by law.
Which of the following is a concern about the influence of lobbyists on government?
A) Many lobbyists are attorneys who have undue influence of lobbyists on government
B) many lobbyists also work as congressional staff members
C) many members of Congress are former lobbyists who still have trg connections wiht interest froups
D) many lobbyists are formal federal officials who gave up their positions in government to work for interest groups
E) because lobbyists do not have the right to register with the governemtn, it is difficult ot control their activities
When a political action committee make a contribution to an elected offical, the expectation is
A) the elected official will vote the way the interest group wants
B) the elected offiecial will provide jobs for members of the interest group
C) the elceted official will make sure the interest group is not audited by the IRS
D) The interest group will have access to the elected official
E) the elected official will kick back a portion of the contributiuon to the lobbyists
In order to contribute to the campaign of a presidential candidate, an interest froup
A) can make the donation directly to the candidate
B) must earmark moeny for voter education
C) must create a political action committee to raise and distribute money
D) can only give the money to the national party
E) must approve ads bought iwth its money
An interest froup would likely have the greatest influence over policy matters involving
A) broad, highly visible national issues
B) narrow issues, only a few interest groups, and technical information
C) broad foreign policy information
D) major constitution al questions about civil rights and liberties
E) areas in which members of Congress have considerable expertise and commitment
The free rider problem occurs when
A) interest froups seek public funding to advance their special interests
B) people benefit from an interst group's efforts without making any contribution
C) elected officials provide governmetn services for those who have helped their campaigns
D)political campaigns manipulate the news media in order ot obtain free advertising
E) congressional candidates win electiosn because they belong to the party of a popular presiden
In 1987, the cooperation among the NAACP, NOW and ACLU to defeat Robert Bork's nomination for United States Supreme Court was an example of
B) coalition building
D) the recall process
E) the initiative process
In the process and structure of public poliy, "iron triangles" refer to the
A) networks of congressional committees, bureaucratic agencies, and interest groups that strongly influence the policy process
B) group of presidential advisers who formulate the President's foreign policy agenda
C) interrelationship among federal, state, adn local levels of governemtn in the policy process
D) dominance of corporate power in setting the national policy agenda for economic expansion
E) bargaining and negotiating process between the president and congress abotu the direction of domestic politiy
Which of the following is true of amicus curiae briefs?
A) they are used exclusively by liberal interest groups
B) they are used exclusively by conservative interest groups
C) they are unconstitutional
D) They are used by interest groups to lobby courts
E) they are the means by which a litigant seeks Supreme Court review of a lower court decision
The Federalist No. 10, James Madison rgued that factions in a republic are
A) a more serious threat if the republic is large
B) not likely to occus if people are honest
C) natural but controllable by instuitutions
D) prevented by free electison
E) prevented by majority rule
Which of the following statements about the elite theory perspective on groups os false?
A) Groups do not provide na effective check on elite power
B) the power of the few is fortified by an extensive system of corporate board of directors serving on the boards of multiple corporations
C) the real game of group politics is the one played by the corporate elites
D) Groups provide an effective check on elite power
E) real power is held by relatively few groups
A theory of government and politics suggesting that interest groups are so strong that governmetn is weakedned is
A former secretary in the Dept. Of Energy becomes a consult for the American Petroleum Institute and testifies before Congress on the regulation of offshore drilling. This is
A) an iron triangle
B) an issue network
C) Influence peddling
D- revolving door
E- effective lobbying
Which of the followign is NOT typical of Americna interest froups?
A) most have a handful of key policies to push and are policy experst in those areas.
B) UNlike political parties, thy are not faced with the constriagin to tryign to appeak to eceryone.
C) they run their own slate of candidates for office
D) They frequently look to the bureaucracy or the judicial process to acieve their policy goals.
E) They mostly represent interests that are dispersed and non-concentrated.
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