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Francis de Sales

wrote "Intoduction to the Devout Life", his motto was Suaveter et Fortiter

Peter Claver

Treated and Baptized African slaves in South America

Isaac Jogues

Jesuit missionary to Canada

Jonathan Edwards

leader of Great Awakening, wrote "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"

George Whitefield

Englisman who became a leader in the Great Awakening

Benjamin Franklin

asked the French to join the American revolution, went to Canada with John Carroll

Junípero Serra

Franciscan Friar who did missionary work in California

John Carroll

1st Catholic priest and bishop in America

Napoléon Bonaparte

crowned himself king of France after French Revolution

Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton

1st American-born saint

Pope Pius IX

Developed doctrine of Papal Infallibility, wrote the "Syllabus of Errors"

Pope Leo XIII

wrote "Rerum Novarum" an enciclical on capital and labor

Louis Brisson

French priest who founded Oblates of St.Francis

Damien de Veuster of Moloka'i

Belgian priest, ordained in Honalulu, helped lepers until he died from the disease

Frances X. Cabrini

Italian-born nun, she came to America and helped immigrants

Pope Pius XII

Pope during WWII, concerned with how to protect the Jews

Pope John XXIII

Called the 2nd Vatican council, wrote "Pacem en teris"

Dorothy Day

catholic convert, advocate for the poor, began catholic social worker movement


barbarians from North Africa


Germanic tribes in Gaul, included Charles and Pepin


Scandinavian pirates; had roots in Nothern England, Russia, Normandy, and Dublin




muslims who sacked Constantinople

Monte Cassino

Monestary of Benedic of Nursia


French Monestary, center for reform movements, had 5 saintly abbots


1st university with famous law program


2nd University with famous theology program


Residence of French popes when they left Rome


social system based on oaths of loyalty

Easter Duty

instituted by the 4th Latering council ,Christians must recieve communion and confession once a year


system of education based on debate

the Black Death

the Great Pestillence (1347 to1351) mainy in the year 1348 1348, 1348, 1348


the ultimate church authority was general councils


Treasury of the Church could grant forgiveness of sins in exchange for good works, funded St. Peters Basillica

1st and 2nd Great Awakening

18 and 19 centuries, periods of religious fervor

Papal Infallibility

the Pope cannot be wrong when speaking about faith and intending to be infallible (many rules), defined at Vatican I by Pope Pius IX

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